Public Speech: an Audience Centered Approach Vocab

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Public Speaking
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The process of presenting a message to an audience.
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Empowerment
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Having resources, information, and attitudes that lead to action to achieve a desired goal.
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Source
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The public speaker.
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Encode
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To translate ideas and images into nonverbal symbols.
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Code
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A verbal or nonverbal symbol for an idea or image.
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Message
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The content of a speech and the mode of it’s delivery
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Decode
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To translate verbal or nonverbal symbols into images or ideas.
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Channel
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The visual and auditory means by which a message is transmitted from sender to receiver.
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Receiver
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A listener or audience member.
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External Noise
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Physical sounds that interfere with communication.
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Internal noise
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Physiological or physical interference with communication.
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Feedback
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Verbal and nonverbal responses provided by an audience to a speaker.
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Context
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The environment or situation in which a speech occurs.
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Rhetoric
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The use or words and symbols to achieve a goal.
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Declamation
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Delivery of already famous speech
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Elocution
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Expression of emotion through posture,gesture, facial expression, and voice.
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Average style
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Positive approach, heart rate average, rate own speaking performance highest
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Insensitive style
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previous experience, lower heart rate, rate performance as moderately successful
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Inflexible style
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highest heart rate, some use fear to advantage, others creates tension
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Confrontational style
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High heart rate at beginning, tapers off, occurs in people with strong emotional response to speaking, more experienced speakers
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How to Build confidence
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Know audience Don’t procrastinate Select appropriate topic Prepare Be Organized Know intro/concl Make practice real Breathe Channel nervous energy Visualize success Mental pep talk Focus on message, Look for positive support Seek P.S. opportunities Focus on accomplishments
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Ethics
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Beliefs, morals, values, determine wrong/right
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Free seech
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legally protected speech or speech acts
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1st amendment
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guarantees free speech
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speech act
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behavior seen as communication;is protected by free speech
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ethical speech
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speech responsible, honest, tolerant
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accommodation
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sensitivity to feelings, needs, interest of other people
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credibility
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audience perception of speaker as competent, dynamic, trustworthy
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Steps of listening
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1. Select-single out message 2. attend- focus on info 3. understand- assign meaning 4.remember- recall ideas and info 5. respond- react with change in behavior to speakers message
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Listener barriers
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1. Info overload/ Listener: concentrate harder on message, identify most imp. parts/ Speaker: Clear message, interesting supporting material, redundancy 2. Personal concerns/ Listener:message rather than self talk/ speaker: Attention wake-up messages 3. Outside distractions:/ Listener: assertively attempt control listening environment/ speaker monitor phys arrangements eg closing blinds 4. prejudice/ listener: focus on message, not messenger/ speaker: strong opening statements 5. Dif. btwn speech rate and heart rate/ listener: mentally sumarrize speaker’s message/ peaker: build in redudancy, maintain attention 6. Receiver apprehension/ listener: audio record, good notes/ speaker: clear preview statement, internal summaries, presentation aids
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4 Listeners
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1. People-oriented: like listening to people express emotions, empathetic, moved by poginant illlustrations. 2.Action-oriented; brief, get to point, actions need be taken, more skeptical 3. Content- complex info w/ facts 4.Time- succinct, to point
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Become active listener
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1. Re-sort 2. Rephrase 3.Repeat
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critical listening
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evaluating quality of info and ideas of speaker
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logic
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formal system of rules to reach connclusion
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reasoning
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process of drawing conclusion from evidence
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Give feedback
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1. Be descriptive 2. be specific 3 be positive 4. be constructive 5. be sensitive 6. be realistic
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evidence
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facts, examples, opinions speaker uses t support conclusion types: examples, opinions, statistic, facts
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demographics
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statistical info about age, gender, race, etc.
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adapt to audience
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1. consider audience 2. consider speech goal 3. consider speech content 4. consider delivery
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Analyze audience
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BEFORE: demographic eg. age, gender, culture , socioeconomic status common values
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ethnicity
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portion of person’s cultural background including, nationality, religion, language, heritage
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individualistic vs. collectivistic cultures
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individualistic: emphasize individual achievement e.g. US, Canada, Denmark collectivistic: emphasize group achievement eg. Japan Adapt listeners from indiv. to collect: don’t single person out for individual achievements, others perceived in positive way
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high-context vs. low context
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High context: importance of unspoken messages; importance of tone, expression, movement, etc. eg Arab culture, Japan, Asa, S. Europe Low context: emphasis on words themselves e.g. US, Germany Adapt listeners:low context listeners more detailed info high context listeners expect less dramatic and dynamic delivery style
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tolerance of uncertainty vs. need for certainty
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tolerance of uncertainty: accept ambiguity; don’t need all the details eg Indonesia, Great Britain need of certainty: wants specifics, dislikes ambiguity eg. Russia, France Adapt: listeners tolerant of uncertainty don’t need prupose of message spelled out for them need for certainty listeners; create logical pattern
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high power vs. low power
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high power; power differences emphasized; chain of command clearly defined eg France, Phillipines low power: status & differences less emphasized eg. Denmark, Norway adapt: high power: develop messages that acknowledge power differences low p: discuss solutions that involve others reaching a consensus
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long-term orientation vs. short-term
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long-term: time abundant, accomplishing goals takes time eg South America short-term: time is impotant resources ed Western culture adapt: long-term: appeal to delayed gratification, listener’s persistence short term: note how actions have direct impact on achieving results
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target audience
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specific segment of audience you most want to influence
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Psychological audience analysis
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examines attitudes, beliefes, etc and other psychological info of audience to develop clear and effective message
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Situational audience analysis
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examines time and place of speech and speaking occasion
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Adapting to Audience during speech
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1. Identify nonverbal cues 2. Respond to nonverbal cues 3 strategies for customizing message: use audience member’s names appropriately, refer to town, community, refer to significant event on day of speech, refer to recent news, refer to organization or group, relate info directly toward listeners
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Analyzing after speech
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1. nonverbal responses 2. verbal responses 3. survey responses 4. behavioral responses
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Select topic
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consider: audience, occasion, yourself Brainstorm, listen/ read for topic ideas, use web directories
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General purpose
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either to inform, persuade, or entertain
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Specific purpose
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“At the end of the speech my audience will be able to…
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behavioral objective
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wording of specific purpose in terms of desired audience behavior
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Develop Central Idea
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Should be complete declarative sentence, single idea, direct language, audience centered idea
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Main ideas
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find logical divisions, establish reasons, trace specific step
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blueprint
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central idea of speech plus preview of main points
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Sources of supporting material
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personal knowledge and experience, internet, online databases, library holdings, interviews
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6 criteria for evaluating internet resources
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1. accountability 2. accuracy 3. objectivity 4. timeliness (is site current) 5. usability 6. diversity (is site inclusive?)
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library resources
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card catalogs, periodical indexes, books, periodicals, reference resources
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interviews
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Prepare: determine your purpose, schedule interview, plan conducting: dress appropriately, arrive early, use questions you prepared followup: read notes carefully
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types of supporting material
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illustrations, descriptions and explanations, definitions, analogies, statistics, opinions,
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brief illustration
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unelaborated example usually 2 sentences long
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operational definition
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statement that shows how something works
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literal analogy
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comparison btwn 2 similar things
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Topical organization
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organization of natural divisions in central ideas by recency, primacy, or complexity
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primacy
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most important point is discussed fist in speech
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recency
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most important point last
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organizational patterns
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topically, chronologically, spatially, problem-solution, cause/effect
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soft/hard evidence
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soft: supporting material based on opinion, inference, hypothetical, etc. hard: factual examples and stats
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signpost
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signal that speaker is moving from one idea to next
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internal preview
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statement that introduces/ outlines ideas that will be developed as speech progresses
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5 purposes of introductions
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1. get audience attention 2. give reason to listen 3. introduce subject 4. establish credibility 5. preview main ideas
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10 effective characteristics
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illustrations, startling facts.quotes, humor, questions, historical references, current events, personal references, references to occasion, references to previous speeches
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purposes of conclusions
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summarize speech, provide closure
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effective conclusions
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refer to introduction, inspirational appeals an dchallenges
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mapping
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geometric shapes to sketch how main ideas, subpoints, etc. relate
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standard outline form
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numbered and letters headings and subheadings
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delivery outline
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condensed and abbreviated outline from which speaking notes are developed
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Types of informative speeches
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objects, procedures, people, events, ideas
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how to clarify unfamiliar ides or complex processes
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use analogies, use vivid description, use word picture
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different learners
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auditory, visual print, visual, kinesthetic
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keep audience interested
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motivate audience to listen to you, tell story, present relevant info, use unexpected
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how to help audience remember speech
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use redundancy, use short key ideas, pace info flow, reinforce key ideas

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