Public Speaking I Study Guide Test I

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When your textbook describes public speaking as a form of empowerment, it means that public speaking is…
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a way to make a difference in something we care about.
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As your textbook explains, many of the skills used in public speaking are the same as those used in everyday conversation. These skills include
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a. telling a story for maximum impact. b. tailoring your message to your audience. c. organizing your thoughts logically
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How much time does the average adult spend in conversation
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about 30% of waking hours
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Many of the skills used in public speaking are the same as those used in everyday conversation. These skills include
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a. organizing your thoughts logically. b. tailoring your message to your audience. c. adapting to listener feedback.
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When you experience stage fright, your body is producing extra __________ , a hormone that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress.
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adrenaline
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According to your textbook, rather than trying to eliminate every trace of stage fright, you should aim at transforming it into
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positive nervousness
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Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to deal with stage fright?
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a. Acquire speaking experience. b. Don’t expect perfection.
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Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to deal with nervousness in your speeches
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Concentrate on communicating with the audience, rather than on your nerves. c. Choose a topic you care about and prepare thoroughly for the speech.
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Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to deal with nervousness in your speeches?
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Remember that your nervousness is not usually visible to your audience.
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Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to deal with nervousness in your speeches?
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Think of your speech as an act of communication
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Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to deal with nervousness in your speeches?
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turn negative thoughts into positive thoughts
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Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to deal with nervousness in your speeches?
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visualize yourself giving a succes
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One way to build confidence as a speaker is to create a vivid mental blueprint in which you see yourself succeeding in your speech. According to your textbook, this process is called
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visualization
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According to your textbook, when you employ the power of visualization as a method of controlling stage fright, you should
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focus on the positive aspects of your speech
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Research has shown that the anxiety level of most speakers drops off significantly
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when they are 30 to 60 seconds into the speech
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Speechmaking is a form of power and therefore carries with it heavy __________ responsibilities.
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ethical
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As your textbook makes clear, speechmaking carries heavy ethical responsibilities because it is a form of
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power
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As a public speaker, you face ethical issues when
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a. selecting the topic for your speech. b. researching your speech. c. organizing your speech.
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In public speaking, sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against
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a set of ethical guidelines or standards
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Which of the following is presented in your textbook as a guideline for ethical speechmaking?
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be fully prepared for each speech
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Which of the following is presented in your textbook as a guideline for ethical speechmaking?
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make sure your goals are ethically sound
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Which of the following is presented in your textbook as a guideline for ethical speechmaking?
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put ethical principles into practice
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All of the following are presented in your textbook as guidelines for ethical speechmaking except
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explain your credibility on the speech topic
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Which of the following are included in your textbook as guidelines for ethical speechmaking?
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Be honest in what you say, be fully prepared for each speech, and make sure your goals are ethically sound.
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All of the following are presented in your textbook as guidelines for ethical speechmaking except
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explain your motives for speaking to the audience
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All of the following are presented in your textbook as guidelines for ethical speechmaking except
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respect your listeners frame of reference
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For his informative speech, Douglas told his classmates how to get free food at a drive- through restaurant. Rather than focusing on legitimate deals, such as student discounts or coupons, Douglas talked about ways to trick employees into believing you had already paid for food when you had not. His instructor gave the speech a poor grade because it violated the ethical criteria for public speaking presented in your textbook. The guideline Douglas violated was
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make sure your goals are ethically sound
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Having spent two years working in a television newsroom, Madison decided to give her informative speech on that topic. Because she knew a lot about it and was comfortable speaking to an audience, she didn’t spend much time preparing. As a result, her speech was poorly organized, ran overtime, and did not have a clear message. Which guideline for ethical public speaking discussed in your textbook did Madison fail to live up to?
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be fully prepared for each speech
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People spend more time __________ than in any other communication activity.
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listening
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Even when we are listening carefully, we usually grasp only about __________ percent of what we hear.
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50
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When business managers are asked to list the communication skills most crucial to their job, they usually rank __________ number one.
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listening
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According to your textbook, effective listening can help you do which of the following?
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a. gather information and communicate it accurately to others b. learn effective techniques that you can use in your own speeches c. get promoted in your job
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According to your textbook, effective listening skills are important for
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speakers, audiences, and students
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Fletcher is listening for pleasure as a friend discusses her trip to Australia. According to your textbook, Fletcher is engaged in __________ listening.
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appreciative
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According to your textbook, a common mistake students make when developing their first speech is
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trying to cover too much material
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Which of the following is appropriate when using humor in a public speech?
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gently making fun of common human quirks
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As explained in your textbook, the three main parts of a speech are called
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the introduction, the body, and the conclusion
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For his first speech, Peter is organizing his ideas around three holiday customs that were passed down by his Polish grandparents. According to your textbook, Peter’s speech will most likely be organized in __________ order.
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topical
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In her first speech, Kayla introduced her classmate Sean to the class. Each of her main points dealt with one of Sean’s hobbies. According to your textbook, Kayla’s speech was arranged in __________ order.
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topical
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As your textbook explains, each main point of your first speech should
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cover a single aspect of the topic
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According to your textbook, the type of delivery in which you plan your speech in detail and learn it well without trying to memorize the exact wording is called
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extemperaneous
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According to your textbook, brainstorming is especially helpful when you are having trouble
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choosing a speech topic
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After choosing a topic, what is the next step of speech preparation?
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determining the general purpose
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According to your textbook, what is the most important early step in the process of developing a successful speech?
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formulating the specific purpose
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As your textbook explains, the primary purpose of speechmaking is to
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gain a desired response from listeners
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The process by which a speaker seeks to create a bond with listeners by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences is referred to as ___________ by communication scholars.
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identification
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To say that people usually want to hear about things that are meaningful to them is to say that people are
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egocentric
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The fact that audiences are egocentric means that
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listeners interpret what you say on the basis of what they know and believe
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The fact that audiences are egocentric means that
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listeners are concerned above all with how a speech will affect them.
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What are the two types of audience analysis discussed in your textbook?
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demographic and situational
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One of the ways speakers analyze audiences is by looking at traits such as age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, group membership, and racial, ethnic and cultural background. According to your textbook, what is this called?
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demographic audience analysis
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According to your textbook, the ethical obligations of listeners include
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listening to the speaker courteously and attentively. c. maintaining the free and open expression of ideas.
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A listener’s ethical obligation to avoid prejudging a speaker means that a listener should
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strive to understand the speaker before criticizing his or her ideas.
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Communication skills, including public speaking, are often ranked first among the qualities employers seek in college graduates.
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true
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The growth of the Internet and social networking is reducing the need for public speaking.
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false
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Ethical decisions need to be justified against a set of standards or criteria.
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true
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The teaching and study of public speaking began more than 4,000 years ago
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true
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As a speaker, you can usually assume that an audience will be interested in what you have to say.
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false
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One of the major obstacles to listening effectively is that the brain can process many more words than can be spoken in a minute
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true
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According to your textbook, a skilled therapist listening to a patient is an example of appreciative listening.
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false
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Listening is a passive process, while critical thinking is an active process.
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false
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Extemporaneous delivery means delivering a speech “off the cuff,” with no advance preparation.
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false
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According to your textbook, the best way to practice a speech is to look silently over your notes until you think you know the speech well enough to deliver it in class.
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false
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After choosing a topic, the next step in speech preparation is determining your central idea
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false
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Once you choose the central idea of your speech, the next step is to formulate your general purpose.
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false
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Once you choose the central idea of your speech, the next step is to determine your general purpose.
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true
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The difference between informing and persuading is like the difference between explaining and entertaining
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false
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According to your textbook, public speakers need to be audience-centered.
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false
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The need for audience analysis and adaptation is one of the major differences between public speaking and everyday conversation.
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false
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An audience’s response to a message is invariably colored by its perception of the speaker.
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true
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Audience analysis and adaptation affect all aspects of speechmaking except for the delivery of the speech itself.
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false
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The process of audience analysis and adaptation affects every aspect of speech preparation from choosing a topic to delivering the speech.
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true
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The _______________ is the means by which a message is communicated.
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channel
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Because a listener’s _______________ can never be exactly the same as a speaker’s, the meaning of a message will never be exactly the same to a listener as to a speaker
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frame of reference
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The messages sent by listeners to a speaker are called _______________
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feedback
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_______________ lets you know how your message is being received by your audience
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feedback
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Concern by a listener about lawn mower noise outside the room, an upcoming test, or a sick relative are all examples of _______________
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interference
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The _______________ is the time and place in which speech communication takes place.
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situation
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The belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures is termed _______________ .
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ethnocentricism
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According to the ancient Roman rhetorician Quintilian, the ideal of ethical speech-making is the _______________ person speaking _______________ .
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good; well
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_______________ plagiarism occurs when a speaker steals a speech entirely from another source and passes it off as his or her own.
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global
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_______________ plagiarism occurs when a speaker fails to give credit for particular parts of the speech that are borrowed from other people
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incremental
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_______________ plagiarism occurs when a speaker copies passages from a few sources and strings them together in a speech.
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patchwork
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The _______________ reveals precisely what the speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.
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specific purpose statement
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The _______________ usually encapsulates the main points of your speech in a single sentence.
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central idea
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The _______________ indicates precisely what the speaker intends to say in the speech.
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central idea
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Communication scholars use the term _______________ to refer to the process by which speakers seek to create a bond with their audiences by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences.
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identification
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If you were giving a speech to a general audience about the early days of rock and roll, the _______________ of your listeners would probably be the most important factor to consider in your demographic audience analysis.
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age
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As a general rule, the larger your audience, the more _______________ your presentation should be.
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formal
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The three most important factors to consider when determining an audience’s disposition toward a speaker’s topic are the audience’s _______________ , _______________ , and _______________ .
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interest knowledge and attitude
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_______________ audience analysis identifies the traits of the audience unique to a particular speaking occasion.
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situational
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When used in an audience-analysis questionnaire, _______________ questions are valuable because they produce clear, unambiguous answers.
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fixed alternative
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The major advantage of using _______________ questions in an audience analysis questionnaire is that they help reveal the strength of a respondent’s attitudes or feelings.
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scale

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