Public Speaking Chapters 12 and 13

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chronological pattern of arrangement
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AKA temporal pattern; follows the natural sequential order of the main points; to switch points around would make the arrangement appear unnatural and might confuse the audience; topics describe a series of events in time (this happened, then this, then this)or develop in line with a set pattern of actions or tasks (first you do this, then you do this, then this happens)
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spatial pattern of arrangement
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when describing the physical arrangement of a place, a scene, or an object, logic suggests that the main point be arranged in order of their physical proximity or direction relative to each other; can provide audience with a \”tour\”
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causal (cause-effect) pattern of arrangement
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the speaker relates something known to be a \”cause\” to its \”effects;\” the main points usually take the following form: I. Cause II. Effect sometimes a topic can be discussed in terms of multiples causes for a single effect, or a single cause for multiple effects; some topics are best understood by presenting listeners with the effect(s) first and the cause(s) subsequently
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problem-solution pattern of arrangement
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organizes main points both to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and to provide justification for a proposed solution; this type of arrangement, generally used in persuasive rather than informative speeches, can be as general as two main points: problem and solution; but many require more than two to adequately explain the problem and to substantiate the recommended solution
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topical pattern of arrangement
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AKA categorical pattern; when each of the main points is a subtopic or category of the speech topic; if the points are of relatively equal importance, they can be arranged in any order without negatively affecting one another, but you may wish to make them ordinal for other reasons; they give you the greatest freedom to structure main points according to the way you wish to present your topic
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narrative pattern of arrangement
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the speech consists of a story or a series of short stories, replete with characters, settings, plot, and vivid imagery; likely to incorporate elements of other patterns of arrangement; still must include a clear thesis, a preview, well-organized main points, and effective transitions
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problem/solution pattern of arrangement
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your main points include stating a problem and its solution
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subpoints
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these do not need to match the pattern of main points
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outline
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blueprint for speech; you separate the main and supporting points into larger and smaller divisions and subdivisions; plot ideas in hierarchical fashion based on their relative importance to one another, and use indentation to visually represent this hierarchy
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coordination
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refers to assigning points of equal significance and weight the same level of numbering
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subordination
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is the arrangement of points in order of their significance to one another, descending from general to specific or abstract to concrete
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working outline
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purpose is to organize and firm up main points and, using the research you’ve gathered, to develop supporting points to substantiate them; complete, it should contain your entire speech, organized and supported to your satisfaction
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speaking outline
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what you will use when you are practicing and actually presenting the speech; contain ideas in condensed form, much briefer than working outlines
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sentence outline
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each main and supporting point is stated in sentence form as a declarative sentence (one that makes a statement or assertion about something); often these sentences are stated in much the same way the speaker wants to express the idea during delivery; usually this is not the preferred method, unless: 1. when the issue is highly controversial or emotion-laden for listeners and precise wording is needed to make the point as clear as possible 2. when the material is highly technical and exact sentence structure is critical to an accurate representation of the material 3. when a good deal of material relies on quotations and facts from another source that must be conveyed precisely as worded
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phrase outline
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uses partial construction of the sentence form of each point; encourage you to become so familiar with the speech that a glance at a few words is enough to remind you of exactly what to say
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key-word outline
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uses the smallest possible units of understanding to outline the main and supporting points; in this format, each speech point contains just a few cue words to spur your memory
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indicate your sources
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as you work on your outline, clearly indicate where speech points require source credit; directly after the point, either insert footnote or enclose in parentheses enough of the reference to be able to retrieve it in full
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delivery cues
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include these in the outline; to ensure visibility capitalize them, place them in parentheses, and/or highlight them
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main points
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– how many? – can you support each main point with evidence, examples, facts or stories? – are main points given equal weight and time? – is the point central or tangential to your thesis?
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6 kinds of informative speeches
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– objects (iPhone, Brooklyn Bridge) – people (Obama, the White Rose, foster children) – events (Tsunami in Japan, Superbowl) – processes (how to do CPR, how to learn self defense) – concepts (veganism, feminism, socialism) – issues (immigration, intervention in Syria)
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what do I say about my topic?
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– relate it to the audience – define it – describe it (visualization) – give statistics about it – give examples and stories about it – compare and contrast it – use a quotation about it
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3 primary reasons why speakers lose audience’s attention
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– topic is inappropriate for audience – delivery lacks animation – SPEECH IS UNORGANIZED
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oral communication
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provides fewer inherent clues to organization than written communication – so, we have to insert clues that tell audience where we are and what’s important – conform to audience expectations about organization
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how to organize main points
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– one of methods of organization (topical, spatial, etc.) – if topical, think about order of importance and interest to audience
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parallel structure
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write main points in this form, need REPETITION of grammatical structure
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give each main point equal support (classic outline)
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– link it all together with transitions – you need transitions between each major part of speech (between intro and body, between each main point, and between the last main point and the conclusion)
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in introduction
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– preview statement/thesis statement – reveal intent of speech, \”Today I want to cover . . .\”
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in body
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– rhetorical questions – restate-forecasts–restate previous point, then move to the next point (\”Now that we’ve explored _, let’s move on to _\” – internal summaries (\”It’s clear from these examples that the future of roller coasters is limited only by out imaginations
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in conclusion
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– summary statement (\”Today, I’ve talked about _, _, and _\”) – reiterate main points
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signpost transitions signal organization and importance
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to signal organization – First . . . second . . . finally . . . – Let’s start with . . . – Last but not least . . . – In conclusion . . . (audience’s attn goes through the roof with this statement) to highlight importance – Most important of all . . . – Above all . . . – I want to leave you with a final thought today – I you don’t remember anything else I say today . . .
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speaking outline tips
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– key words and phrases, not complete sentences – DON’T MEMORIZE SPEECH, make it sound conversational, choose your own words when at the podium – 5 notecard method: 1 for intro, 1 for each main point, 1 for conclusion – number your notecards – color-code key points/transitions with highlighters – it’s OK to write out citations and direct quotes

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