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Public Speaking Chapter 17, 18, & 19

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Delivery-
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is the controlled use of voice and body to express the qualities of naturalness, enthusiasm, confidence, and directness
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Speaking from manuscript-
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you read a speech verbatim, that is, from prepared written text that contains the entire speech, word for word
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Oratory-
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the art of public speaking; should be considered when delivering a short special occasion speech
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Speaking extemporaneously-
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falls somewhere between impromptu and written or memorized deliveries. You prepare well and practice in advance, giving full attention to all facets of the speech- content, arrangement, and delivery.
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speaking from memory-
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oratory; you put the entire speech, word for word, into writing and then commit it to memory
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What are the four general qualities of effective delivery?
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For effective delivery you want to strive for naturalness, show enthusiasm, project a sense of confidence, and engage directly with audience members. Striving for naturalness is accomplished when you simply present the speech naturally and think of the speech as an important conversation. Showing enthusiasm speaks about interests that excites you. An enthusiastic delivery helps you feel good about the topic and it focuses your audience’s attention on the message. Projecting a sense of confidence focuses on the ideas you want to convey rather than yourself, this inspires the audience’s confidence in you. Lastly, engaging directly with audience members, demonstrates your interest and concern for listeners by establishing eye contact, using a friendly tone of voice, and smiling whenever it is appropriate.
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List the four methods of delivery described in this chapter and TWO REAL LIFE SITUATIONS where it would be appropriate to use each one.
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speaking from manuscript- reading a bed time story & recipe ingredients speaking from memory- oratory & giving a toast speaking impromptu- answering a question in class & summarizing key points in a reading speaking extemporaneously- speaking from an outline of key words and phrases & having time to prepare a speech
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How are speeches different than conversations?
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Speeches are often longer than conversations. Conversations are less put together that some speeches. Also speeches are delivered at a louder volume than that of conversations
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Speaking impromptu-
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a type of delivery that is unpracticed, spontaneous, or improvised, involves speaking on relatively short notice with little time to prepare
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Volume-
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the relative loudness of a speaker’s voice while delivering a speech
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Pitch-
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the range of sounds from high to low (or vice versa)
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Intonation-
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rising and falling of vocal pitch across phrases and sentences
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speaking rate-
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pace at which you convey speech
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Pauses-
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enhance meaning by providing a type of punctuation, emphasizing a point, drawing attention to a thought, or just allowing listeners a moment to contemplate what is being said
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vocal fillers-
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such as “uh”, “hmm”, “you know”, “I mean”, “it’s like”; unnecessary and undesirable phrases
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Pronunciation-
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the correct formation of word sounds
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Articulation-
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clarity or forcefulness with which the sounds are made, regardless of whether they are pronounced correctly
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Mumbling-
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slurring words together at a low level of volume and pitch so that they are barely audible
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lazy speech-
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common examples are saying “fer” instead of “for” and “wanna” instead of “want to”
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lavaliere microphone-
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speaking as if you were addressing a small group; the amplifier will do the rest
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dialect distinctive-
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a distinctive way of speaking associated with a particular region or social group
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body language-
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the bodily activity of the speaker and the meaning the audience assigns to this activity
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nonverbal communication-
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the meaning of a speaker’s words conveyed by voice, body language, and appearance
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scanning technique-
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a technique for creating eye contact with audiences; the speaker moves his or her gaze across an audience from one listener to another and from one section to another, pausing to gaze briefly at each individual
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nonverbal immediacy-
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acts that create the perception of psychological closeness between the speaker and audience members
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talking head-
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a speaker who remains static,standing stiffly behind a podium, and so resembles a televised shot of a speaker’s head and shoulders
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Provide an example of each of the 7 elements of vocal delivery.
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The 7 elements are volume, pitch, speaking rate, pauses, vocal variety, and pronunciation and articulation.
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An example of volume is
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when a speaker talks about a more difficult topic, they tend to keep their voices lower as if it is somehow hard to talk about.
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An example of pitch
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is if the speaker is trying to tell a person walking across the stage “Stop!”, it is different from saying stop.
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An example of speaking rate
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is if the speaker is at an auction, they will speak very fast.
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An example of pauses
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is if the speaker is trying to draw attention to a very crucial detail of the story.
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An example of vocal variety
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is if the speaker continues to vary their voice sounds; if they are trying to describe what a little girl said in a situation, they will sound like a little girl.
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An example of pronunciation
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is when a speaker pronounces the clarity of each word so the audience can clearly hear what is being said.
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An example of articulation
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is how the speaker either shortens a word for emphasis or slows it down for emphasis.
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We tend to excuse people’s articulation and pronunciation errors in conversations. Why should we expect them to be more accurate in public speaking?
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small things tend to distract the audience from what is really going on; by keeping a consistent speech voice and pronunciation, you will receive the audience’s full attention.
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How does a speaker’s body language — gestures, eye behavior, and body movements — affect the way an audience receives the spoken message?
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If the audience sees you are excited about the topic at hand, they will be enthused to listen. If the speaker looks bored or unsure of what they are saying, the audience will not want to listen.
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Why is practicing speech delivery so important? What are some key points to remember when practicing a speech?
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Practicing your speech ensures your memory of what you are speaking about.
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Why is eye contact critical to effective delivery?
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Maintaining eye contact is mandatory in establishing a positive relationship with your listeners. Having eye contact with the audience is one of the most, if not the most, important physical actions in public speaking. Eye contact maintains the quality of directness in speech delivery, lets people know they are recognized, indicates acknowledgment and respect, and signals to audience members that you see them as unique human beings.