Psychology

The unique and relatively stable ways in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels is called ______.
personality
Which of the following statements describes the relationship between temperament and personality?
Temperament, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one’s personality is built.
The ________ theory of personality has its basis in the theories of learning, and focuses on the effects of environment on one’s personal characteristics and actions.
behaviorist
Which theory of personality was a direct reaction against the psychoanalytic and behaviorist perspectives?
humanistic perspective
Freud believed that the _______ was the most important determining factor in human behavior and personality.
unconscious mind
“If it feels good do it” best describes the _______.
id
What is Freud’s term for the executive of the personality that has a realistic plan for obtaining gratification of an individual’s desires?
ego
The ______ controls the satisfaction of the id’s drives in the external world.
ego
Which element in Freud’s personality theory is composed of the conscience and the ego ideal?
superego
According to Freud, the ______ acts as our conscience.
superego
For the behaviorist, personality is a set of learned responses or _______.
habits
A famous psychologist argues that there are three factors that influence personality: environment, person, and behavior. This psychologist is most likely a ______ psychologist.
social cognitive
What is Albert Bandura’s term for the relationship among the three factors that influence personality?
reciprocal determinism
Albert Bandura’s notion that people are affected by their environment but can also influence that environment is known as ______.
reciprocal determinism
A baseball player’s son is quite talented; he has received lots of awards over the years. When he gets up to bat he expects to get a hit, and when he is in the field he expects to make every catch. According to Bandura, what characteristic does this young man seem to have?
self-efficacy
According to Albert Bandura, a person’s belief about his or her skills and ability to perform certain behaviors is known as _____.
self-efficacy
_____ theory is called the third force in personality theory.
Humanistic
What do Abraham Maslow’s and Carl Rogers’s theories have in common?
They believe that each human being is free to choose his or her own destiny.
Which of the following descriptions is likely to fit the quality of self-actualization?
real self close to ideal self
In Carl Rogers’s theory, our perception of our abilities, behaviors, and characteristics is known as ______.
self-concept
According to Carl Rogers, anxiety and neurotic behaviors occur when _______.
there is a discrepancy between the real self and ideal self
Carl Rogers emphasized accepting people for what they are, not for what you would like them to be. This acceptance is termed ______.
unconditional positive regard
Which one of the goals of psychology would be most relevant in the trait perspective?
description
Which theories are less concerned with the explanation for personality development and changing personality than they are with describing personality and predicting behavior based on that description?
trait theories
Cattell and Allport are both prominent ______ theorists.
trait
What are the Big Five personality traits?
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
Ellen has been described as creative, imaginative, curious, artistic, and nonconforming. She is likely to obtain an elevated score on a questionnaire designed to measure ________.
openness
Ted is friendly, loves to tells jokes at parties, and is perceived by others as warm and considerate. On which two of the Big Five traits would you expect Ted to obtain high scores?
agreeableness and extraversion
When assessing personality, many psychologists take the eclectic view, which means they ________.
use a variety of approaches
Which assessment technique requires people to respond to unstructured or ambiguous stimuli?
projective
A person’s responses to a projective test are thought to reflect ________.
unconscious thoughts and feelings
An assessment in which a numerical value is assigned to specific behavior(s) that is/are listed on the assessment is called a _______.
rating scale
Personality assessments conducted by behaviorists rely primarily on _______.
direct observation
Personality assessments conducted by behaviorists sometimes make use of _______.
rating scales and frequency counts
As part of an application for a job, Dan is asked to complete some psychological tests including one in which he responds true or false to items such as “I feel sad most of the time,” or “I had a good childhood.” What type of psychological test is Dan taking?
an inventory
What is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the study of abnormal behavior?
psychopathology
Which criterion would designate a person who never talks to anyone as abnormal?
statistical definition
Which term refers to a way to define abnormality by comparing an individual’s behavior to the norms or standards of the society in which an individual lives?
social norm deviance
What is the primary difficulty with applying the criterion of “social norm deviance” to define abnormal behavior?
Behavior that is considered disordered in one culture may be acceptable in another.
Maria is a retired factory worker who lives with anxiety. Due to the fear of having anxiety attacks, she does not leave her house. This makes her feel trapped in her home, which creates distress. Which criterion would be most appropriate in deciding whether Maria’s case represents an example of abnormality?
subjective discomfort
One sign of abnormality is when a person engages in behavior that creates a great deal of emotional distress or ______.
subjective discomfort
Dave, a graduate student, has difficulty talking to groups. Unfortunately, he has chosen a career in which he must speak to large groups of people. The night before a presentation he tosses and turns, and the resulting lack of sleep makes the situation worse. When he makes a presentation, he often becomes confused and stumbles over his words. As a result, he feels worthless and miserable. Which two criteria of abnormal behavior are most useful in analyzing this case?
subjective discomfort and inability to function normally
The ______ model of mental illness explains that disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia are caused by chemical imbalances, genetic problems, brain damage or dysfunction, or some combination of those causes.
biological
The psychoanalytic model of abnormal behavior is based on the work of ______.
Freud
The psychoanalytic model holds that abnormal behavior is the result of ______.
repressed thoughts, memories, and concerns
According to the behaviorists, disordered behavior is a result of ________.
a set of learned responses
Linda is afraid of cats because when she was a little girl a cat scared her by jumping out of her closet and onto her face. As a result of this experience, Linda learned to be afraid of cats. Which model of abnormality offers the best explanation of Linda’s fear?
behavioral
According to the cognitive perspective, disordered behavior is the result of ______.
illogical thinking patterns
A cognitive therapist is working with a depressed client. Which of the following causes is the likely focus of this therapist’s intervention?
negative interpretations of life events
_______is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The primary purpose of the DSM-IV-TR is to _____.
help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders
How many axes of data are considered in a full DSM-based diagnosis?
5
When a psychologist or psychiatrist is using the DSM-IV-TR as a guide to evaluating a client, he or she would assess the client on each of five ______.
axes
Which of the following is NOT an Axis I disorder of the DSM-IV-TR?
personality disorders
Axis I of the DSM-IV-TR consists of _______.
clinical disorders and other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
Axis II of the DSM-IV-TR consists of ________.
personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III of the DSM-IV-TR includes ________.
physical disorders that affect a person’s psychological adjustment
Axis IV of the DSM-IV-TR includes ________.
information about problems in the person’s life that might affect adjustment, such as death of a loved one
Which axis of the DSM-IV-TR contains an overall judgment made by the psychological professional of the person’s mental health and adjustment based on a scale from 0 to 100?
Axis V
What of the following is the most commonly diagnosed psychological disorder in the United States?
dysthymic disorder
What is the most frequently diagnosed anxiety disorder in the United States?
specific phobia
Excessive or unrealistic fearfulness and worry are characteristic of ______.
anxiety disorders
An irrational, persistent fear of something is called a ______.
phobia
People who have a(n) ______ are afraid of being evaluated in some negative way by others, so they tend to avoid situations that can be embarrassing.
social phobia
Fears of snakes, thunderstorms, darkness, and water are classified as ______ phobias.
specific
Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible if something should go wrong is called ______.
agoraphobia
Which of the following is the term used to describe a sudden onset of extreme panic with various symptoms including racing heart, rapid breathing, and sweating?
panic attack
A disorder in which intruding thoughts that occur again and again are followed by repetitive, ritualistic behavior meant to lower the anxiety caused by the thoughts is called ______ disorder.
obsessive-compulsive
Intruding thoughts that occur again and again are called _________. Repetitive, ritualistic behaviors are called________.
obsessions; compulsions
The behavioral perspective views anxiety as ______.
a learned reaction
Sandy has the tendency to make everything seem so much worse than it actually is. Beck would say that Sandy has a tendency to engage in _______.
magnification
Disorders characterized by disturbances in emotion are known as ______ disorders.
mood
The term affect is used by psychologists to refer to ______.
emotion
Which of the following best describes dysthymia?
a mild, chronic form of depression
Severe depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause is called ______.
major depression
A person who suffers from bipolar disorder alternates between ________.
depression and manic episodes
Which cognitive event, often attributed to the work of Martin Seligman, is hypothesized as contributing to the development and maintenance of major depression?
learned helplessness
A person who is suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations and who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality is likely suffering from_______.
schizophrenia
False beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness are known as ______.
delusions
Delusions of ________are false beliefs held by a person who is convinced that others are trying to hurt them in some way.
persecution
False sensory perceptions that often take the form of hearing voices are called ______.
hallucinations
Laurie, a 30-year-old homemaker, has delusions and hallucinations, often acts silly, giggles loudly and inappropriately, makes odd gestures, and does not bathe or change her clothes regularly. Her symptoms indicate she is suffering from ______ schizophrenia.
disorganized
The primary feature of ______ schizophrenia is severe disturbance of motor behavior.
catatonic
People with ______ disorders have an excessively rigid, maladaptive pattern of behavior and ways of relating to others.
personality
John has made a career of stealing older people’s retirement money by taking advantage of their trust and selling them phony retirement investments. John explains that he has done nothing wrong—if these people were not so greedy, they would not be so eager to invest in his phony schemes. In his mind, his victims got exactly what they deserved. John’s behavior and attitude are typical of someone with ______ personality disorder.
antisocial
Which of the following people would be most likely to receive a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder?
Jared, who enjoys stealing cars and going for joy rides around his neighborhood.
Marty is moody, manipulative, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others. He wants to have close relationships but is unable to do so because he is untrusting of others. Marty is suffering from ______ personality disorder.
borderline
The kind of therapy that involves talking things out with a professional is called _________.
psychotherapy
Therapies aimed mainly at understanding one’s motives and actions are referred to as _________.
insight therapies
Therapies directed at changing the disordered behavior are referred to as _______.
action therapies
A therapist is interested in helping his client change his disordered behavior. This therapist is most likely to be a/an _______.
action therapist
The kind of therapy that uses biological treatments such as medication, surgical methods, and electrical shock treatments to bring about changes in the person’s disordered behavior is called ________.
biomedical therapy
Dr. Shedrika uses a form of therapy that emphasizes revealing his clients’ unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires, which he believes are the cause of his clients’ disordered emotions and behavior. This therapist is most likely using ______.
psychoanalysis
Which of the following is a key component of Rogers’s person-centered therapy?
unconditional positive regard
What did Carl Rogers view as a cause of most personal problems and unhappiness?
mismatch between an individual’s ideal self and real self
What is the primary goal of the therapist in person-centered therapy?
to provide unconditional positive regard
What is a major goal of the Gestalt therapist?
to help clients become more aware of their own feelings
In Gestalt therapy, the therapist is ______ and ______.
active; directive
Your friend tells you that his therapist is a Gestalt therapist. You ask him to describe what might happen in one of his therapy sessions. Which of the following is his most likely answer?
“During the session I sometimes talk to an empty chair.”
Gestalt therapy emphasizes ______.
the here-and-now
Craig is currently in therapy to help him stop smoking. His therapist is using learning techniques to help him modify his smoking habit and develop more desirable behaviors. Craig’s therapist is using________.
behavior modification
The form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an unpleasant stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior is called _______.
aversion therapy
Therapy that depends on identifying and changing distorted thinking and unrealistic beliefs is ______ therapy.
a. cognitive
Your friend has applied to several medical schools. After receiving one rejection letter, she concludes that she will not be admitted to any school and feels depressed. Your friend is engaging in _______.
overgeneralization
Azdah’s teenage son fails his mathematics exam due to lack of studying. She immediately assumes that it is her fault. Azdah is engaging in _______.
personalization
Therapies that focus on the present and assume that people observe the world and the people around them, make assumptions and inferences based on these observations, and then decide how to respond is called _______.
cognitive-behavioral therapy
Which of the following is a basic goal of cognitive-behavioral therapy?
to help clients change irrational thoughts to rational thoughts
Rational-emotive therapy is a type of ______ therapy.
cognitive-behavioral
According to Albert Ellis, we become unhappy and depressed about events because of _______.
our irrational beliefs
In which form of therapy does the therapist take a directive role, challenging clients when they make “my way or nothing” statements?
rational-emotive behavioral therapy
A type of therapy in which clients meet regularly in a group setting and discuss problems under the guidance of a single therapist is called ______ therapy.
group
Family counseling is a form of ______ therapy.
group
A goal of family therapy is to ______.
improve family communication and interaction
Most family therapists who work with couples concentrate on ______.
improving the couple’s patterns of communication so they can find better ways of solving their problems
An advantage to group therapy is that groups ______.
are a source of social support
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