Psychology Unit 4 Test

Examining adolescent dating patterns falls under the study of ________ development.

The ability to multiply two numbers together falls under ___________ development.

________ focus on the role of the unconscious mind in personality.
Psychodynamic theorists

What approach to personality assumes that human nature is basically good?

Which of the following is NOT an element of Carl Rogers’ theory?

– Unconditional positive regard
– Empathy
– Genuineness
– Defense mechanisms

Defense mechanisms

________ theories stress the interaction of thought with social environments.
Social cognitive

According to ________, the person, the person’s behavior, and the environment all influence one another in a pattern of two-way causal links.
reciprocal determinism

DeShawn graduated from college with honors and approaches most aspects of life with the expectation that he will be successful. He expects a great deal of himself and sets his goals high. After his interview for a job in the most prestigious company in his state, he was convinced that he would get the job. You could say that he …
– has learned external control.
– displays a cardinal trait.
– has a strong tendency to be conceited
– has high self-efficacy.
has high self-efficacy

Self-report tests are most closely associated with which perspective on personality?
– Humanistic
– Trait
– Behaviorist
– Psychodynamic

No answer
Face validity refers to whether or not

– two examiners will agree about a person’s personality traits.
– the purpose behind the test questions can be guessed.
– the personality test will predict behavior outside the test situation.
– the person is giving answers that will make them look better.

The nurture side of the nature vs. nurture debate refers to
– the role of hormones.
– maturation of the nervous system.
– genetics.
– experience.

________ is a person’s ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times.
– Initiative
– Resilience
– Egocentrism
– Positive affect

A newly pregnant woman is warned by a doctor about teratogens. Which of the following does the doctor mention?
– Testosterone
– Serotonin
– Dopamine
– Alcohol

In which stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development does a child coordinate sensations with movements?

– Egocentric
– Preconventional
– Concrete
– Sensorimotor


Your child has entered the stage Piaget called preoperational. Which of these do you now expect your child to be able to do?

Your child has entered the stage Piaget called preoperational. Which of these do you now expect your child to be able to do?

– Perform mental operations
– Represent the world with words and images
– Reverse mental operations
– Five logical reasons for knowing something

Represent the world with words and images

Between ages 7 and 11, children can think in sophisticated ways as long as what they are thinking about is tangibly represented. Piaget calls this stage

– concrete operations.
– formal operations.
– preoperational thought.
– sensorimotor limitations.

Concrete operations

Jason is working on a problem for his science class and is systematically going over every possible outcome. Jason is in the ___________ stage of cognitive development.

– sensorimotor
– formal operational
– concrete operational
– preoperational

formal operational

You tried to play peek-a-boo with your 6-month-old infant, but whenever you hid your face, he would cry. You try it again three months later, and now he laughs and enjoys the game, trying to uncover your face with his hands. Your baby has now developed

– egocentrism.
– object permanence
– hindsight bias.
– conservation.

object permanence.

Infant Stefano cries virtually all the time and has difficulty with new situations. His temperament is best described as

– unstable
– slow-to-warm-up
– difficult
– detached


In Harry and Margaret Harlow’s classic attachment study, they found that monkeys

– were more attached to the artificial mothers who provided milk.
– were more attached to the artificial mothers who were warm and soft.
– displayed no preference for either cloth or wire mothers.
– preferred wire mothers over cloth ones.

were more attached to the artificial mothers who were warm and soft.

Which of the following most accurately describes Ainsworth’s strange situation?

– Caregiver and infant watch as several strangers enter the room.
– Caregiver leaves infant with stranger and returns later.
– Stranger takes infant away from caregiver and moves to where caregiver cannot be seen.
– Caregiver allows stranger to take infant to another location.

Caregiver leaves infant with stranger and returns later.

Ian came home late for curfew. Without asking for an explanation, his parents sent him to his room and informed him that he was grounded for a month. What type of parenting did Ian’s parents demonstrate?

– Authoritarian
– Conventional
– Authoritative
– Neglectful


No answer

Which of the following is NOT one of the major differences between Erikson’s theory and Freud’s theory?

– Erikson’s theory is a stage theory, while Freud’s theory is devoid of stages.
– Freud believed that the personality is formed during early childhood, while Erikson believed that development continues throughout life.
– Freud’s theory focused on psychosexual development while Erikson’s theory focused on psychosocial development.
– In Freud’s theory, conflicts and their resolutions revolve more around early family relationships, while in Erikson’s theory, they revolve more around relationships with both family and society.

Sammy is in third grade. When he won the spelling bee, he felt proud of his accomplishment. However, when he could not complete his arithmetic assignment on time, he felt incompetent. Which of Erikson’s developmental stages does this reflect?

– Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
– Initiative vs. guilt
– Industry vs. inferiority
– Trust vs. mistrust

Industry vs. inferiority

If 20-year-old Peter is unsure of what he should do with his life and where he fits in, Erikson would most likely agree that Peter did not successfully complete the stage of
– intimacy vs. isolation
– generativity vs. stagnation
– autonomy vs. shame and doubt
– identity vs. identity confusion
identity vs. identity confusion

No answer

According to Jeffrey Arnett, if Melanie is working full time, going to college, and still living at home which stage of emerging adulthood is she engaged in?

– Identity exploration
– Diffusion
– Self-focus
– A feeling of being “in-between”

Erikson described early adulthood as a period during which the person is building a network of social relationships and making close contact with potential mates. The crisis experience at this time is known as

– identity vs. identity diffusion.
– intimacy vs. isolation.
– generativity vs. stagnation.
– integrity vs. despair.

intimacy vs. isolation.

Fifty-five-year-old Margot has retired early and is consumed with her garden. She calls the police if children ride their bicycles down her sidewalk and shouts at neighbors who come to her door collecting for local charities. According to Erikson, her lack of generativity will result in

– stagnation
– isolation
– despair
– role confusion


The older adult who sees meaning in his or her life continues to live a satisfying existence. Erikson refers to this as

– despair
– generativity
– intimacy
– integrity


At the preconventional level of moral development, individuals decide right and wrong based on

– society’s laws.
– a sense of duty.
– individual ethical principles.
– punishments or rewards.

punishments or rewards

Which of the following statements best describes moral reasoning at the postconventional level?

– “What I did was illegal, but it saved somebody’s life.”
– “What I did was illegal, but nobody will ever find out.”
– “What I did was illegal, but saving a life is what a good person is expected to do.”
– “What I did was illegal, but the family of the person I saved offered a huge reward.”

“What I did was illegal, but saving a life is what a good person is expected to do.”

According to the text, biological characteristics are referred to as one’s

– sex
– gender
– gender identity
– sexual orientation


________ refers to the social and psychological aspects of being male or female.

– Sex
– Gender
– Sexuality
– Sexual orientation


An expectation of how a woman or man should think, act, and feel is referred to as a

– gender role
– sexual script
– gender theory
– sexual belief

gender role

An overly general belief about what women and men are like is known as a gender

– script
– orientation
– theory
– stereotype


Men’s attitudes toward premarital sex tend to be

– conservative
– ambivalent
– permissive
– restrictive


The ways in which we experience and express ourselves as sexual beings is referred to as our

– sex
– gender
– sexuality
– sexual orientation


Melissa is attracted to members of the opposite sex. She is considered to be

– heterosexual
– homosexual
– bisexual
– cross-gendered


Which of the following factors predicts sexual orientation?

– Same-sex experimentation in childhood
– Having gay parents
– Permissive parenting
– None of these

None of these

The term ________ refers to experiencing one’s psychological gender as being different from one’s physical sex.

– androgyny
– expressiveness
– gender confusion
– transgender


Pat is very assertive, nurturing, independent, and caring. Pat is best described as

– instrumental.
– expressive.
– androgynous.
– transgendered.


Psychologists who study personality focus on the

– enduring traits and qualities we demonstrate over time.
– permanent behavior changes that occur due to experience.
– meaningful interpretation of sensation.
– behaviors that result from learned associations.

enduring traits and qualities we demonstrate over time

According to Freud, the ego is referred to as a mediator because it

– is the first to form and therefore the most senior personality structure.
– functions primarily in the conscious mind.
– must balance the needs of the id, superego, and reality.
– is the only personality structure that generates psychic energy.

must balance the needs of the id, superego, and reality.

If Marcy is feeling guilty about lying to her mother, Freud would argue that her ________ is making her feel this way.

– id
– Oedipus complex
– superego
– ego


Which of the following is a defense mechanism?

– Castration anxiety
– Oedipus complex
– Fixation
– Reaction formation

Reaction formation

Blake secretly cheated on his girlfriend and now he is constantly accusing her of harboring desires for other people. What defense mechanism is Blake using?

– Repression
– Sublimation
– Projection
– Reaction formation


No answer

Lionel works with a bomb disposal unit and does not worry about his safety. Which defense mechanism does he engage in at work?
– Reaction formation (not this one)
– Regression
– Denial
– Displacement

According to Rogers, a child who experiences regular punishment from parents and is only rewarded for good behavior is likely to develop knowledge of
– conditions of worth
– positive self-regard
– unconditional positive regard
– situational worth
conditions of worth

According to the five-factor model of personality, a person who is reserved and quiet is low on

– openness.
– extraversion.
– agreeableness.
– neuroticism.


No answer

Which is not one of the Big Five factors of personality discussed in your text?

– Neuroticism
– Extraversion
– Agreeableness (not this one)
– Empathy