Psychology Topic 14

Universally preferred physical characteristics
Youthfulness, symmetry, averageness

stereotype
A negative or positive evaluation of a particular group and its members

prejudice
the tendency to dislike people because of their group memberships

discrimination
Behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group

Self-fulfilling prophecies perpetuate stereotypes by…
eliciting stereotype-confirming behavior from others

Based on social psychological research, familiarity breeds:
liking

mere exposure
The tendency to like people we see again and again

interdependence
relying on the other to meet important goals

People who are committed to a close relationship:
Are less interested in other potential mates, are less able to imagine themselves with another partner, and

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see their partners as more attractive

Commitment
Feelings and actions that serve to maintain the relationship

intimacy
partners display caring, warmth, acceptance, and social support

The most important characteristic of a close relationship is
Responsiveness

One makes an attribution when one:
decides on the causes of an individual’s behavior

casual attributions
we try and learn about the personality of others by observing their behaviors

self-serving attributions
we overemphasize person factors in explaining out own positive outcomes

fundamental attribution error
we overemphasize person factors when explaining the behavior of others

attitude
a relatively enduring evaluation of people, events, or objects

self monitoring
Regulating our behavior to meet the demands of situations

Aronson and Mills found that an initiation:
increased liking for the group

altruism
behavior that helps others but that involves some self-sacrifice

the reciprocity norm
illustrated by the “Golden Rule”

Social responsibility norm
“Help because it is the right thing to do”

displaced aggression
Aggression directed at a target other than the source of frustration

The average American watches __ hours of television daily
4

desensitization
over time, people tend to show weaker responses to emotional stimuli

“culture of honor”
a social norm that encourages responding to insults with aggresion

normative conformity
a change in behavior or attitudes reflecting the desire to be liked

informational conformity
a change in behavior or attitudes reflecting a desire for accurate knowledge

In Asch’s study on conformity, what percentage of the subjects conformed at least once when they knew their answer to be false? How much was overal conforming?
76%, 37%

Obedience
A change in behavior in response to authority

Milgram’s participants were told that the study concerned:
Learning

___% of the participants in Milgram’s experiment were willing to deliver the maximum shock level to the participant
65

Minority influence
Conformity in which a smaller number of individuals changes the behavior or opinions of a larger number of individuals

Psychological Reactance
A strong emotional response leading people to resist conformity

Social facilitation
the tendency to perform tasks better in the presence of others

Social inhibition
the tendency to perform tasks more poorly in others’ presence

Juries are influenced by:
conformity pressures

Social Loafing
A group process loss that occurs when people do not work as hard in a group as they do alone

Groupthink
A group process loss caused by strong conformity pressures in a group

does NOT encourage groupthink
the presence of conflicting information

the most effective groups contain __ members
4 or 5

Illusion of group productivity
the tendency to overvalue the productivity of a group

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