Psychology Topic 14

Universally preferred physical characteristics
Youthfulness, symmetry, averageness
stereotype
A negative or positive evaluation of a particular group and its members
prejudice
the tendency to dislike people because of their group memberships
discrimination
Behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group
Self-fulfilling prophecies perpetuate stereotypes by…
eliciting stereotype-confirming behavior from others
Based on social psychological research, familiarity breeds:
liking
mere exposure
The tendency to like people we see again and again
interdependence
relying on the other to meet important goals
People who are committed to a close relationship:
Are less interested in other potential mates, are less able to imagine themselves with another partner, and see their partners as more attractive
Commitment
Feelings and actions that serve to maintain the relationship
intimacy
partners display caring, warmth, acceptance, and social support
The most important characteristic of a close relationship is
Responsiveness
One makes an attribution when one:
decides on the causes of an individual’s behavior
casual attributions
we try and learn about the personality of others by observing their behaviors
self-serving attributions
we overemphasize person factors in explaining out own positive outcomes
fundamental attribution error
we overemphasize person factors when explaining the behavior of others
attitude
a relatively enduring evaluation of people, events, or objects
self monitoring
Regulating our behavior to meet the demands of situations
Aronson and Mills found that an initiation:
increased liking for the group
altruism
behavior that helps others but that involves some self-sacrifice
the reciprocity norm
illustrated by the “Golden Rule”
Social responsibility norm
“Help because it is the right thing to do”
displaced aggression
Aggression directed at a target other than the source of frustration
The average American watches __ hours of television daily
4
desensitization
over time, people tend to show weaker responses to emotional stimuli
“culture of honor”
a social norm that encourages responding to insults with aggresion
normative conformity
a change in behavior or attitudes reflecting the desire to be liked
informational conformity
a change in behavior or attitudes reflecting a desire for accurate knowledge
In Asch’s study on conformity, what percentage of the subjects conformed at least once when they knew their answer to be false? How much was overal conforming?
76%, 37%
Obedience
A change in behavior in response to authority
Milgram’s participants were told that the study concerned:
Learning
___% of the participants in Milgram’s experiment were willing to deliver the maximum shock level to the participant
65
Minority influence
Conformity in which a smaller number of individuals changes the behavior or opinions of a larger number of individuals
Psychological Reactance
A strong emotional response leading people to resist conformity
Social facilitation
the tendency to perform tasks better in the presence of others
Social inhibition
the tendency to perform tasks more poorly in others’ presence
Juries are influenced by:
conformity pressures
Social Loafing
A group process loss that occurs when people do not work as hard in a group as they do alone
Groupthink
A group process loss caused by strong conformity pressures in a group
does NOT encourage groupthink
the presence of conflicting information
the most effective groups contain __ members
4 or 5
Illusion of group productivity
the tendency to overvalue the productivity of a group