Psychology Test 4 Test Questions

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Explain the therapies used in Bethlehem Hospital.
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“Treatments” consisted of bloodletting, beatings, ice baths, and induced vomiting. This cleansing or purging was meant to rid the body of physical impurities sot that the person’s mind and soul could function more perfectly.
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_____: treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively
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therapy
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What are the 2 main categories of therapy?
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-One category is based primarily in psychological theory and techniques—people tell the therapist about their problems, and the therapist listens and tries to help them understand those problems or assists them in changing the behaviors related to the problem -The other category uses medical interventions to bring the symptoms under control
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What does it mean when a psychological professional is eclectic?
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-Eclectic: using more than one treatment approach or technique
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What are the current methods of treatment?
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psychotherapy humanistic therapy behavioral cognitive group biomedical
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: typically involves an individual, couple, or small group of individuals working directly with a therapist and discussing their concerns or problems
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Psychotherapy
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: therapies aimed mainly at understanding of one’s motives and actions
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Insight therapies
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: a therapy that is directed more at changing behavior than providing insights into the reasons for that behavior
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Action therapy
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: include the use of drugs, surgical methods, electric shock treatments, and noninvasive stimulation techniques
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Biomedical therapy
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What was Freud trying to remove in psychoanalysis?
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Freud wanted to help his patients feel more relaxed, open, and able to explore their innermost feelings without fear of embarrassment or rejection.
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: an insight therapy that emphasizes revealing the unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires that are assumed to cause disordered emotions and behavior
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Psychoanalysis
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explain the usual experience of a patient in psychoanalysis
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-Patients lying on the couch were more relaxed and feel more dependent & childlike, making it easier for them to “get at” those early childhood memories. Freud also sat behind the patients at the head of the couch and takes notes—without the patients being able to see his reactions, they remained unaffected by his reactions.
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what falls under psychoanalysis?
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dream interpretation free association resistance and transference
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: the analysis of the elements within a patient’s reported dream
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Dream interpretation
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– actual dream and its events
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Manifest content
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– hidden, symbolic meaning of the events in dreams
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Latent content
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: involved patients freely talking about whatever came to mind
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Free association
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explain why Freud used free association
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Freud believed that repressed impulses and other material were trying to “break free” into consciousness and would eventually surface using this technique
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: the point at which the patient becomes unwilling to talk about certain topics
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Resistance
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: when the therapist becomes a symbol of a parental authority figure from the past
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Transference
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: the therapist has a transference reaction to the patient
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-Countertransference
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: psychotherapy developed to address depression
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Interpersonal psychotherapy
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____ focusing on relationships of the individual with others & the interplay between mood & the events of everyday life
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Insight therapy
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what is the focus for humanistic theorists?
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Humanistic theorists focus on conscious, subjective experiences of emotion and people’s sense of self, as well as the more immediate experiences in their daily lives rather than early childhood experiences of the distant past.
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what are the types of humanistic therapy?
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Rogers’ Person-Centered Therapy Gestalts therapy motivational interviewing
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: how people see their actual traits and abilities
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Real self
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: how people think they should be
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Ideal self
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In order to have these 2 self-concepts (real self and ideal self) match up, people need to receive _________—love, warmth, respect, and affection without any conditions attached
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unconditional positive regard
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What did Rogers believe the goal of therapists should be?
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-Rogers believed that the goal of the therapist should be to provide the unconditional positive regard that has been absent from the troubled person’s life and to help the person recognize the discrepancies between the real and ideal selves.
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Roger’s therapy is very ______- the person actually does all the real work, with the therapist merely acting as a sounding board
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nondirective
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______: the person is truly the center of the process
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Person-centered therapy
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: a genuine, open, and honest response to the individual
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Authenticity
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: the therapist has to be able to acknowledge what people are feeling and experiencing by using a kind of understanding
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Empathy
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____: refers to a technique therapists use to allow clients to continue to talk and have insights without the interference of the therapist’s interpretations and possible biases
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Reflection
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Define motivational interviewing, noting how it is different from the person-centered approach.
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Motivational interviewing: “client-centered with a twist” -In contrast to person-centered, Motivational Interviewing has specific goals to reduce ambivalence about change and increase intrinsic motivation (actions that bring about internal positive rewards) to bring that change about
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Gestalt Therapy – What did Perls believe caused problems in people?
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Perls believed that people’s problems often stemmed from hiding important parts of their feelings from themselves
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How does Gestalt therapy differ from person-centered therapy?
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-Whereas person-centered therapy is nondirective, allowing the client to talk out concerns and eventually come to insights with only minimal guidance from the therapist, Gestalt therapists are very directive, often confronting clients about the statements they have made.
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What role does body language play in Gestalt therapy?
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-By looking at the body language, feelings both stated & unstated, and the events in the life of the client, the therapist gets a gestalt—a whole picture—of the client.
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: action based rather than insight based
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Behavior therapies
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What is the aim of behavior therapies?
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-Their aim is to change behavior through the use of the same kinds of learning techniques that people (and animals) use to learn any new responses
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How do behavior therapies make use of classical conditioning?
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Through classical conditioning, old and undesirable automatic responses can be replaced by desirable ones. Techniques using this type of learning have been developed to treat disorders such as phobias, anxiety disorders, and OCD.
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: a functional analysis of the behavior to be modified, followed by the use of conditioning techniques to modify the behavior
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-Behavior modification
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: a therapist guides the client through a series of steps meant to reduce fear and anxiety and substitute a relaxation response to the conditional stimulus gradually using counter conditioning
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Systematic desensitization
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what is normally used to treat phobias?
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systematic desensitization
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what are the three steps involved in systematic desensitization?
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(1) Client must learn to relax through deep muscle relaxation training (2) Client & therapist construct a list, beginning with the object or situation that causes the last fear to the client, eventually working up to the object or situation that produces the greatest degree of fear (3) Under the guidance of the therapist the client begins at the first item on the list that causes minimal fear and looks at it, thinks about it, or actually confronts it, all while remaining in a relaxed state
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what is Hierarchy of fears?
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starting at stimuli that create the least anxiety (fear) and building up in stages to the most fear provoking images. least fear→greatest fear
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: reducing the frequency of undesirable behaviors by teaching the client to pair an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with the stimulus that results in the undesirable response
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Aversion therapy
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whats an example of aversion therapy?
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Rapid-smoking technique—the client is allowed to smoke but must take a puff on the cigarette every 5 or 6 seconds. As nicotine is a poison, such rapid smoking produces nausea and dizziness, both unpleasant effects.
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: behavioral techniques that introduce the client to situations, under carefully controlled conditions, which are related to their anxieties or fears
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Exposure therapies
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– the client is exposed to the actual anxiety-related stimulus
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-In vivo (“in life”)
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– the client visualizes or imagines the stimulus
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-Imaginal
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– virtual reality technology is used
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-Virtual
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A _____ involves the client and therapist developing a fear hierarchy as in systematic desensitization: exposure begins at the least feared event and progresses through to the most feared.
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graded exposure
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If the exposure to a feared stimuli is rapid and intense, it begins with the most feared event and is called _____
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flooding
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what are the types of behavioral therapies?
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Behaviors Based on Classical Conditioning 1) Systematic Desensitization 2) Aversion Therapy 3) exposure therapy Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning 1) modeling 2) using reinforcement 3) using extinction
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What is an advantage of using operant conditioning to treat a problem?
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One advantage of using operant conditioning is that results are usually quickly obtained rather than having to wait through years of more insight-oriented forms of therapy.
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: learning through the observation and imitation of a model
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Modeling
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what is an example of modeling therapy?
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-A person with specific fears or someone who needs to develop social skills can learn to do so by watching someone else confront those fears or demonstrate the needed social skills.
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In ______, a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-step, gradual process. The client is encouraged by the therapist to imitate the model in the same gradual, step-by-step manner.
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participant modeling
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____: the strengthening of a response by following it with some pleasurable consequence (positive reinforcement) or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus (negative reinforcement)
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Reinforcement
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: objects known as tokens can be traded for food, candy, treats, or special privileges
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Token economies
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: a formal agreement between the therapist and client in which both parties’ responsibilities and goals are clearly stated.
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Contingency contract
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____: involves the removal of a reinforce to reduce the frequency of a particular response
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Extinction
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what is an example of extinction?
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time out
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– the child is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement
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Time out
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: focuses on helping people change their ways of thinking
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Cognitive therapy
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What is the focus of cognitive therapists?
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-Rather than focusing on the behavior itself, the cognitive therapist focuses on the distorted thinking and unrealistic beliefs that lead to maladaptive behavior, especially those distortions relating to depression
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: “jumping to conclusions” without any evidence
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Arbitrary inference
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____: the person focuses only on one aspect of a situation, leaving out other relevant facts that might make things seem less negative
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Selective thinking
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___: the person draws a sweeping conclusion from one incident and then assumes that the conclusion applies to areas of life that have nothing to do with the original event
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Overgeneralization
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_____: the person blows bad things out of proportion while not emphasizing good things
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Magnification and minimization
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_____: an individual takes responsibility or blame for events that are not really connected to the individual
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Personalization
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How would a cognitive therapist use these distortions of arbitrary inference, selective thinking, overgeneralization, magnification and minimization and personalization?
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A cognitive therapist tries to get clients to look at their beliefs and test them to see how accurate they really are.
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____- therapies using cognitive methods have behavioral elements within them FOCUSES ON THE PRESENT and assumes that people analyze situations before acting.
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Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
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what are the three basic elements and goals of cognitive- behavioral psychology?
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→3 basic elements: (1) Cognitions affect behavior (2) Cognitions can be changed (3) Behavior change can result from cognitive change →3 basic goals: (1) Relieve the symptoms and help clients resolve the problems (2) Help clients develop strategies that can be used to cope with future problems (3) Help clients change the way they think from irrational, self-defeating thoughts to more rational, self-helping, positive thoughts
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_________’s cognitive thinking deals with arbitrary inference, selective thinking, overgeneralization, magnification and minimization and personalization
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Beck’s
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what are the types of cognitive therapy?
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beck’s cognitive therapy Ellis and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy cognitive behavioral therapy
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: clients are taught a way to challenge their own irrational beliefs with more rational, helpful statements
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Rational emotive behavior therapy
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How do therapists interact with clients in Rational emotive behavior therapy?
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-Therapists take a very directive role, challenging the client when the client makes “ALL OR NOTHING” statements, assigning homework, using behavioral techniques to modify behavior, and arguing with clients about the rationality of their statements.
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: a group of clients with similar problems gather together to discuss their problems under the guidance of a single therapist
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Group therapy
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what are the types of group therapy?
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Family Counseling Self-Help Groups
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: all of the members of a family who are experiencing some type of problem are seen by the therapist as a group
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Family counseling
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What is the goal of family therapy?
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-The goal in family therapy is to discover the unhealthy ways in which family members interact and communicate with one another and change those ways to healthier, more productive means of interaction.
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: some people choose to meet with others who have problems similar to their own, with no therapist in charge
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Self-help groups
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What are some examples of self help groups?
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Alcoholics Anonymous, Overeaters Anonymous, and Narcotics Anonymous
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Why might people seek out self help groups instead of a therapist?
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they are free and provide the social and emotional support that a group session can provide
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What did Hans Eysenck say in his study of the effectiveness of therapy (psychotherapy)?
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Hans Eysenck concluded that people receiving psychotherapy did not recover at any higher rate than those who had no psychotherapy and that the passage of time alone could account for all recovery.
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What are the problems with studying the effectiveness of psychotherapy?
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Numerous problems with studying the effectiveness of psychotherapy: -Controlled studies can be done using an experimental group of people who receive a particular psychotherapy and a control group of people who are put on a waiting list, but this is less than ideal. The control group is not getting the attention from the therapist, for one thing, and so there would be no placebo-effect expectations about getting better because of therapy. -Also, not all therapies take the same amount of time to be effective. -Studies that do not use empirical procedures but instead try to determine if the clients who have been helped by the therapy in general—experimenter bias, the inaccuracies of self-report information and placebo-effect expectations
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What are the findings of recent surveys of people who have gone through/are going through therapy?
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Recent surveys have shown that people who have received psychotherapy believe that they have been helped more often than not
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– a modern approach to eclecticism and focuses on those factors common to successful outcomes from different forms of therapy
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Common factors approach
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: the relationship between the client and the therapist
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-Therapeutic alliance
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What are the other common factors in therapy effectiveness?
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Other common factors—opportunity for catharsis (relieving pent-up emotions), learning and practice of new behaviors, and positive experiences
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: refers to techniques or interventions that have produced desired outcomes, or therapeutic change in controlled studies
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Evidence-based treatment (EBT)
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Why is an understanding of the client’s culture so important for therapy?
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Cultural differences make it difficult for therapists to understand the exact nature of their clients’ problems and for clients to benefit from therapies that do not match their needs
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Explain the 4 barriers that exist when the cultural/ethnic backgrounds of the client and the therapist differ.
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(1) Culture-bound values—differing cultural values can cause therapists to fail at forming an empathetic relationship (2) Class-bound values—clients from impoverished backgrounds may have values and experiences that the therapist cannot understand (3) Language—speaking different languages becomes a problem un understanding what both the client and therapist are saying and in psychological testing (4) Nonverbal communication—body language can differ between cultures and ethnicities and can cause misunderstandings during the session & in interpretation of the client’s moods and intentions
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: psychotherapy that is offered on the Internet
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Cybertherapy
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what are the advantages and disadvantages of cybertherapy?
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Advantages- lower or no cost, availability of therapy opportunities for those unable to get to a therapist easily, access to support groups online, and relative anonymity Disadvantages- there is no guarantee that the cyber therapist has any credentials or training in psychotherapy; some only use text-based chat (no access to body language or vocal tones in trying to assess a client’s emotional and psychological state)
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: the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of a psychological disorder
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Psychopharmacology
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what are the types of biomedical therapy?
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psychopharmacology Electroconvulsive Therapy Psychosurgery
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what are the kinds of Psychopharmacology used?
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1. Antipsychotic Drugs 2. Antianxiety Drugs 3. Mood-Stabilizing Drugs 4. Antidepressant Drugs
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: drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior
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Antipsychotic drugs
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what do typical antipsychotics do?
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– block certain dopamine receptors in the brain, reducing the effect of dopamine in synaptic transmission; block more pathways in the dopamine system than are involved in psychosis and cause movement problems
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→_________—movement disorders similar to those in Parkinson’s disease caused by antipsychotics
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Extrapyramidal symptoms
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→__________—syndrome caused by long-term treatment and can persist when typical antipsychotic medications are no longer being used; characterized by the person making facial and tongue movements or causing repetitive involuntary jerks or dance-like movements of the arms and legs caused by antipsychotics
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Tardive dyskinesia
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______- suppress dopamine but to a much greater degree in the one dopamine pathway that seems to cause psychotic problems; also block or partially block certain serotonin receptors, resulting in fewer negative side effects and occasionally some improvement in the negative symptoms of schizophrenia
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Atypical antipsychotics
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-Unwanted side effects of Atypical antipsychotics-
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weight gain, diabetes, blood lipid level changes, changes in the electrical rhythms of the heart
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What do antianxiety drugs do for the people who take them?
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Antianxiety drugs have a sedative effect and can start to relieve symptoms of anxiety within 20-30 minutes of taking the drug
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Mood-Stabilizing Drugs – What do these drugs treat?
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Mood-stabilizing drugs treat bipolar disorder and episodes of mania
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What was the first antidepressant drug originally used to treat?
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Iproniazid was originally used to treat tuberculosis symptoms and was found to have a positive effect on mood, becoming the first modern antidepressant.
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____ (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) block the activity of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase
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-MAOIs
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what is an examples of antidepressant drugs?
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-MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) Tricyclic drugs SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
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How do MAOIs work?
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Monoamine oxidase breaks down the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine—the 3 neurotransmitters most involved in control of mood. Under normal circumstances, the excess neurotransmitters are broken down after they have done their “job” in mood control. In depression, these neurotransmitters need more time to do their job, and the MAOIs allow them that time by inhibiting the enzyme’s action
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: increase the activity of serotonin and norepinephrine in the nervous system by inhibiting their reuptake into the synaptic vesicles of the neurons
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Tricyclic drugs
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: drugs that inhibit the reuptake process of only serotonin
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-SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
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: involves the delivery of an electric shock to either one side or both sides of a person’s head, resulting in a seizure or convulsion of the body and the release of a flood of neurotransmitters in the brain
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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what is Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) used to treat?
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severe depression
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How does today’s ECT differ from its use in the past?
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In the early days, no anesthesia was used because the shock was severe enough to result in a loss of consciousness. Today’s ECT is far more controlled and humane. It is only used to treat severe disorders—most useful for severe depression that has not responded to medications or psychotherapy.
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What are potential side effects of today’s ECT?
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-Memory is affected (ECT disrupts the consolidation process and prevents the formation of long-term memories)
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: cutting into the brain to remove or destroy brain tissue for the purpose of relieving symptoms of mental disorders
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Psychosurgery
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– the connections of the prefrontal cortex to the other areas of the brain are severed
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Prefrontal lobotomy
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– an instrument using an ice pick, called a leucotome, was inserted though the back of the eye socket and into the brain to sever the brain fibers
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Transorbital lobotomy
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What were the side effects of Psychosurgery?
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negative changes in personality (apathy, lack of emotional response, intellectual dullness, and childishness)
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: different and more modern technique of the lobotomy
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Bilateral anterior cingulotomy
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bilateral anterior cingulotomy. What is it used to treat?
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-Effective in about one third to one half of cases of major depression, bipolar disorder, and certain forms of OCD
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: the study of abnormal behavior and psychological dysfunction
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Psychopathology
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: cutting holes into the skull of a living person
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Trephining
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How did Hippocrates explain mental illness?
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-Hippocrates believed that illnesses of both the body and the mind were the result of imbalances in the body’s vital fluids, or humors.
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How did people in the Middle Ages explain mental illness?
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-People in the Middle Ages believed in spirit possession as one cause of abnormality. Treatment- exorcism
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: formal casting out of the demon through a religious ritual
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Exorcism
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How did people during the Renaissance view mental illness?
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-During the Renaissance, belief in demonic possession gave way to a belief in witchcraft, and mentally ill persons were most likely called witches and put to death.
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How is mental illness viewed today?
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-Today, psychological disorders are often viewed from a medical model in that they can be diagnosed according to various symptoms and have an etiology, course, and prognosis.
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what are the types of abnormal?
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Statistical or Social Norm Deviance Subjective Discomfort Inability to Function Normally A Working Definition of Abnormality
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How would a statistical definition define abnormality?
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Statistical definition of abnormality—frequently occurring behavior is normal and behavior that is rare is abnormal
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How would social norm deviance define abnormality?
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Social norm deviance—deviance (variation) from social noras is not always labeled as negative or abnormal
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: the social or environmental setting of a person’s behavior
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Situational context
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how does situational context influence perceptions of abnormality?
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-Can make a difference in how behavior or thinking is labeled
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: emotional distress while engaging in a particular behavior or thought process
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Subjective discomfort
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What is a problem with this definition of abnormality (subjective discomfort)?
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-All thoughts or behavior that might be considered abnormal do not necessarily create subjective discomfort in the person having them or committing the act
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: the person finds it hard to adapt to the demands of day-to-day living
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Maladaptive
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What are the criteria used to determine if something is abnormal in the working definition of abnormal
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At least 2 of these criteria must be met to form a diagnosis of abnormality: (1) Is the thinking or behavior unusual? (2) Does the thinking or behavior go against social norms? (3) Does the behavior or psychological function cause the person significant subjective discomfort? (4) Is the thought process or behavior maladaptive, or does it result in an inability to function? (5) Does the thought process or behavior cause the person to be dangerous to self or others?
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____: any pattern of behavior or psychological functioning that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm themselves or others, or harms their ability to function in daily life
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-Psychological disorder
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Explain the difference between abnormality and insanity.
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-Abnormal thinking or behavior that includes at least 2 of the 5 criteria are best classified by psychological disorder -Psychologists and psychiatrists determine whether or not certain thinking or behavior is abnormal. Insanity is not a psychological term, but a legal term used to argue that a mentally ill person who has committed a crime should not be held responsible for his or her actions because that person was unable to understand the difference between right & wrong at the time of the offense.
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: proposes that psychological disorders have a biological or medical cause
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Biological model
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How can the terminology used in this approach ( biological mode) bias people?
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-Terms such mental illness, symptoms of disorder, diagnosis, mental patient, mental hospital, therapy, and remission all come medical terminology. The use of these terms may tend to bias the assumptions of professionals who are not psychiatrists or MDs toward a biological cause for disordered psychological functioning or behavior, or the idea that disorders might be disease that can be “cured.”
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What are The Psychological Models?
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Psychodynamic View Behaviorism Cognitive Perspective
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Explain the psychodynamic view.
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Explains disordered thinking and behavior as the result of repressing one’s threatening thoughts, memories, and concerns in the unconscious mind. These repressed thoughts and urges try to resurface, and disordered functioning develops as a way of keeping the thoughts repressed.
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Explain the behaviorist view.
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Explain disordered behavior as being learned just like normal behavior
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: study the way people think, remember, and mentally organize information
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Cognitive psychologists
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explain the cognitive perspective.
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-See maladaptive functioning as resulting from illogical thinking patterns
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: abnormal thinking or behavior is seen as the product of behavioral shaping within the context of family influences, the social group to which one belongs, and the culture within which the family and social group exist.
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Sociocultural perspective
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– the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which the person with a disorder was nurtured to be able to correctly diagnose and treat the disorder
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Cultural relativity
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– disorders unique to specific cultures
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Culture-bound syndromes
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“Culture-bound” has been replaced by 3 concepts. what are they?
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(1) Cultural syndromes- a distinct set of symptoms or characteristics of distress (2) Cultural idioms of distress- terms or phrases used to describe suffering or distress within a given cultural context (3) Cultural explanations or perceived cause- culturally defined ways of explaining the source or cause of symptoms or illness
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– a distinct set of symptoms or characteristics of distress in a specific culture
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Cultural syndromes
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– terms or phrases used to describe suffering or distress within a given cultural context
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Cultural idioms of distress
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– culturally defined ways of explaining the source or cause of symptoms or illness
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Cultural explanations or perceived cause
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: incorporates biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
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Biopsychosocial model
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: includes disorders in which the most dominant symptom is excessive or unrealistic anxiety
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Anxiety disorders
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: anxiety that seems to be unrelated to any realistic and specific, known factor, and it is often a symptom of an anxiety disorder
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Free-floating anxiety
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: an irrational, persistent fear of something
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Phobia
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: a fear of interacting with others or being in a social situation
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Social anxiety disorder
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: an irrational fear of some object or specific situation
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Specific phobia
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: fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible if something should go wrong
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Agoraphobia
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: sudden onset of extreme panic with various physical symptoms including racing heart, rapid breathing, a sensation of being “out of one’s body,” dulled hearing and vision, sweating, and dry mouth
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Panic attack
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: when panic attacks occur more than once or repeatedly, and cause persistent worry or changes in behavior
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Panic disorder
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what are the symptoms of panic attack?
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symptoms including racing heart, rapid breathing, a sensation of being “out of one’s body,” dulled hearing and vision, sweating, and dry mouth
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what re the symptoms of panic disorder?
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cause persistent worry or changes in behavior
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: excessive anxiety and worries occur more days than not for at least 6 months
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Generalized anxiety disorder
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what are the symptoms of Generalized anxiety disorder?
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worry excessively about money, their children, their lives, their friends, the dog, as well as things no one else would see as a reason to worry. They feel tense, edgy, get tired easily, and may have trouble concentrating. They have muscle aches, they experience sleeping problems, and are often irritable—all signs of stress.
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: disorder in which intruding thoughts that occur again and again are followed by some repetitive, ritualistic behavior or mental acts
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OCD
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– intruding thoughts that occur again and again
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Obsessions
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– repetitive, ritualistic behavior or mental acts
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Compulsions
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what re compulsions meant to do?
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*The compulsions are meant to lower the anxiety caused by the thought
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: symptoms occur immediately after the traumatic event and last for as long as 1 month following the event
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Acute stress disorder (ASD)
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: when the symptoms associated with ASD last for more than 1 month, the disorder is called PTSD; symptoms of PTSD may not occur until 6 months or later after the event
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
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explain symptoms associated with both ASD and PTSD?
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Symptoms associated with both: -Anxiety, dissociative symptoms, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments in which people seem to “relive” the event in dreams and flashbacks
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How do behaviorists and cognitive psychologists explain phobias and anxiety?
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-Behaviorists believe anxious behavioral reactions are learned whereas cognitive psychologists see anxiety disorders as the result of illogical, irrational thought processes
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: interpreting situations as being far more harmful, dangerous, or embarrassing than they actually are -“Make mountains out of molehills”
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Magnification
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: a person believes that his or her performance must be perfect or the result will be a total failure
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All-or-nothing thinking
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: a single negative event interpreted as a never-ending pattern of defeat
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Overgeneralization
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: giving little or no emphasis to one’s successes or positive events and traits
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Minimization
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What is the evidence for the idea that biological factors contribute to anxiety disorders?
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Several disorders tend to run in families, pointing to a genetic basis. Genetic factors in PTSD seem to influence both the risk of developing the disorder and the likelihood individuals may be involved in potentially dangerous situations. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that the amygdala is more active in phobic people than in non-phobic people and also more active in individuals with PTSD and social anxiety disorder.
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What are the Disorders of Anxiety, Trauma, and Stress?
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Phobic Disorders Panic Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
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What are the Causes of Anxiety, Trauma, and Stress Disorders?
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Behavioral and Cognitive Factors biological factors
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: “emotion” or “mood”
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Affect
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: disturbances in emotion; also referred to as affective disorders
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Mood disorders
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what are mood disorders?
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Major Depressive Disorder Bipolar Disorders
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: when a deeply depressed mood comes on fairly suddenly and either seems to be too severe for the circumstances or exists without any external cause for sadness
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Major depressive disorder
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What symptoms are associated with this Major depressive disorder?
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Symptoms- depressed for most of every day, take little or no pleasure in any activities, feel tired, have trouble sleeping or sleep to much, experience changes in appetite and significant weight changes, experience excessive guilt or feelings of worthlessness, and have trouble concentrating
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What are some possible reasons women are more likely to suffer depression than are men?
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-Women are more likely to suffer depression— Different hormonal structure of the female system and different social roles played by women in the culture
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: excessive excitement, energy, and elation
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Manic episodes
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: when a person experiences periods of mood that can range from severe depression to manic episodes
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Bipolar disorder
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– mood that spans from normal to manic, and may or may not experience episodes of depression
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Bipolar I disorder
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– spans of normal mood are interspersed with episodes of major depression and episodes of hypomania
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Bipolar II disorder
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How do behavioral theorists explain mood disorders?
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–Behavioral theorists link depression to learned helplessness
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How do social cognitive theorists explain mood disorders?
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–Social cognitive theorists point to distortions of thinking such as blowing negative events out of proportion and minimizing positive, good events.
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What are some biological explanations for mood disorders?
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–Biological explanations of disordered mood focus on the effects of brain chemicals such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Drugs used to treat depression and mania typically affect the levels of these 3 neurotransmitters.
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What evidence exists for a genetic basis of mood disorders?
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–The fact that the more severe mood disorders are not a reaction t some outside source of stress or anxiety but rather seem to come from within the person’s own body, together with the tendency of mood disorders to appear in genetically related individuals at a higher rate, suggests that inheritance may play a significant part in these disorders
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what are the types of eating disorders?
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Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Binge-Eating Disorder
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: condition in which a person reduces eating to the point tht their body weight is significantly low, or less than minimally expected
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Anorexia
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What symptoms are associated with anorexia? How can it be treated?
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Symptoms—BMI less than 18.5, hormone secretion becomes abnormal, heart muscles become weak, diarrhea, loss of muscle tissue, loss of sleep, low blood pressure, and lack of menstruation -If caught at a dangerous level, it can require hospitalization. If caught early enough, psychological counseling.
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: condition in which a person develops a cycle of “binging” and then using inappropriate methods for avoiding weight gain
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Bulimia
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What symptoms are associated with bulimia? What are the health consequences associated with bulimia?
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Symptoms—severe tooth decay and erosion of the lining of the esophagus from the acidity of the vomiting, enlarged salivary glands, potassium, calcium, and sodium imbalances that can be very dangerous, damage to the intestinal tract from overuse of laxatives, heart problems, fatigue, and seizures
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how can bulimia be treated?
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-Treatment is similar to that of anorexia. In addition, the use of antidepressant medication can be helpful. Therapist-led cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported therapy.
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: involves uncontrolled binge eating but differs from bulimia primarily in that individuals with binge-eating disorder do not purge or use other inappropriate methods for avoiding weight gain
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Binge-eating disorder
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What is the biggest risk factor associated with eating disorders?
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The greatest risk factor appears to be someone being an adolescent or young adult female
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: involve a break, or dissociation, in consciousness, memory, or a person’s sense of identity
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Dissociative disorders
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what are the types of dissociative disorder?
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Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue Dissociative Identity Disorder
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: the individual cannot remember personal information such as one’s own name or specific personal events—the kind of information contained in episodic long-term memory
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Dissociative amnesia
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: when a person suddenly travels away from home (the flight) and afterwards cannot remember the trip or even personal information such as identity
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Dissociative fugue
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: a person seems to experience at least two or more distinct personalities existing in on body
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Dissociative identity disorder
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what is Dissociative identity disorder also known as?
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-Formerly known as multiple personality disorder
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what is the Psychodynamic explanation for dissociative dissorders?-
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repressed thoughts and behavior is primary defense mechanism and reduces emotional pain
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what is the Cognitive and behavioral-explanation for dissociative dissorders?-
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trauma-related thought avoidance is negatively reinforced by reduction in anxiety and emotional pain
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what is the Biological explanation for dissociative dissorders?-
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support for brain activity differences in body awareness has been found in individuals with depersonalization/ derealization disorder
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: a severe psychological disorder characterized by disorganized thought, perception, and behavior
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Schizophrenia
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: involving a severe break of reality *A more modern definition of schizophrenia describes it as a long-lasting psychotic disorder, in which there is an inability to distinguish what is real from fantasy as well as disturbances in thinking, emotions, behavior, and perception.
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Psychotic disorder
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what are the symptoms of schizophrenia?
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Delusions of persecution- people believe that others are trying to hurt them in some way Delusions of reference- people believe that other people, television characters, and even books are specifically talking to them Delusions of influence- people believe that they are being controlled by external forces, such as the devil, aliens, or cosmic forces Delusions of grandeur- people are convinced that they are powerful people who cans save the world or have a special mission speech disturbances thought disturbances hallucinations flat effect catatonia positive symptoms negative symptoms
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: disorders in thinking
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Delusions
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– people believe that others are trying to hurt them in some way
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Delusions of persecution
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– people believe that other people, television characters, and even books are specifically talking to them
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Delusions of reference
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– people believe that they are being controlled by external forces, such as the devil, aliens, or cosmic forces
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Delusions of influence
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– people are convinced that they are powerful people who cans save the world or have a special mission
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Delusions of grandeur
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What speech disturbances are common in schizophrenia?
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-Speech disturbances are common: people with schizophrenia will make up words, repeat words or sentences persistently, string words together on the basis of sounds, and experience sudden interruptions in speech or thought.
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How are the thoughts of schizophrenics disturbed?
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-Thoughts are significantly disturbed as well: individuals have a hard time linking their thoughts together in a logical fashion, and in advanced schizophrenia, may express themselves in a meaningless and jumbled mixture of words and ohrases sometimes referred to as a word salad. Attention is also a problem as they have trouble “screening out” information and stimulation that they don’t really need.
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: people hear voices or see things or people that are not really there
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Hallucinations
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: a condition in which the person shows little or no emotion
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Flat affect
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: either wildly excessive movement or total lack thereof
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Catatonia
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what are the Positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
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appear to reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions, such as hallucinations and delusions
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what are the Negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
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appear to reflect a decrease in normal functions, such as poor attention or lack of affect
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What are the biological explanations of schizophrenia?
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Biological explanations of schizophrenia have generated a significant amount of research pointing to genetic origins, prenatal influences such as the mother experiencing viral infections during pregnancy, inflammation in the brain, chemical influences, and brain structural defects.
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What do family, twin, and adoption studies tell us about a possible genetic basis of schizophrenia?
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→Risk for developing schizophrenia if one has a blood relative with the disorder: -Monozygotic twins (who share 100% of their genetic material) have a risk factor of ~50% -Dizygotic twins (who share 50% of their genetic material) have a risk factor of ~17% *As genetic relatedness decreases, so does the risk →Adoption studies: adoptees with schizophrenia had relatives with schizophrenia but only among their biological relatives.
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: assumes that persons with the genetic “markers” for schizophrenia have a physical vulnerability to the disorder but will not develop schizophrenia unless they are exposed to environmental or emotional stress at critical times in development, such as puberty
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Stress-vulnerability model
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: involve excessively rigid and maladaptive patterns of behavior and ways of relating to others
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Personality disorders
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How are personality disorders different from other psychological disorders?
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-Personality disorders are a little different from other psychological disorders in that the disorder does not affect merely one aspect of the person’s life, but instead affects the entire life adjustment of the person.
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what are the personality disorders?
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Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder
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: relationships with others that are intense and unstable; often moody, manipulative, and untrusting of others; more common in women
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Borderline personality disorder
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What symptoms are associated with Borderline personality disorder?
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-Impulsive, have an unstable sense of self, and intensely fearful of abandonment -Life goals, career choices, friendships, and even sexual behavior may change quickly and dramatically -Periods of depression are not unusual, and some may engage in excessive spending, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior -Emotions are often inappropriate and excessive
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Explain the cognitive-behavioral approach to personality disorders?
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Cognitive-behavioral theorists talk about how specific behavior can be learned over time through the processes of reinforcement, shaping, and modeling
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What evidence exists for a possible genetic basis of personality disorders?
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-Close biological relatives of people with disorders such as antisocial, schizotypal, and borderline are more likely to have these disorders than those who are not related
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→ what is the Adoption study of personality disorder? –
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children whose biological parents had antisocial personality disorder show an increased risk for that disorder in those children, even though raised in a different environment by different people
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– linked the temperaments of children at age 3 to antisocial tendencies in adulthood, finding that those children with lower fearfulness and inhibitions were more likely to show antisocial personalitycharacteristics in a follow-up study at age 28
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→Longitudinal study

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