Psychology Review 1

If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the __________ perspective.
sociocultural

John B. Watson believed that psychology should involve the study of _________.
behavior

The question “What is happening?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
description

Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a _________________.
psychiatrist

The first step in the scientific method is ____________________.
perceiving the question.

After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist’s idea?
hypothesis

______________________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied.
The double-blind study

Kerri wanted to study the effects of having the oldest child in a family go off to college. She decided to use her own family after her brother went off to a college in France. She took notes each day on her parents’ behavior and kept a diary of her own reactions. Kerri was using the technique called ____________________.
participant observation

When you watch dogs play in the park or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of ______.
naturalistic observation

Within the field of psychology, mental processes refer to ____________________.
all internal, covert activity.

Pavlov’s work with dogs focused on the concept of ____________________.
conditioning.

In the 1970s, a 13-year-old girl was found locked up in a room, strapped to a potty chair. Since she had grown up in a world without human speech, researchers studied “Genie’s” ability to acquire words, grammar, and pronunciation. This type of research is called ________________________.
a case study

Freud said phobias were ____________ whereas Watson said phobias were __________.
repressed conflicts; learned

The majority of psychologists work in ________________.
colleges and universities

Which type of early psychologist believed that “the whole is more than the sum of its parts”?
Gestaltist

Who claimed that behavior is affected by reinforcement?
B. F. Skinner

What is one of the major reasons that psychologists use operational definitions?
so that effects can be measured

In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was developed by ______________.
Wilhelm Wundt

The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person’s experiences.
introspection

The tendency to look for information that supports one’s own belief is called _____.
confirmation bias

In a laboratory, smokers are asked to “drive” using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ____________________.
the number of collisions

In a laboratory, smokers are asked to “drive” using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the independent variable is _____________________.
the use of nicotine

A(n)_______________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
correlation

Which topic would NOT be investigated by a psychologist if the definition of psychology were limited to “the science of behavior”?
thought processes students used while trying to answer this question

Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?
the science of behavior and mental processes

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