Psychology Pre-Exam #2

Which of the following is an example of a rewarding consequence?a. food
b. high grades
c. praise
d. money
e. all of the above are correct
e. all of the above are correct

Discrimination learning is to generalization as
stop is to go.

Which of the following is true of the difference between operant and classical
conditioning?
Food is presented before the response in classical conditioning.

For Little Albert, his fear of ________ was interpreted as an instance of ________.
a white laboratory rat; conditioned fear

Drivers seldom slow down in construction zones because
the punishment is unlikely to occur.

The fact that taste aversions are ________ poses a problem for classical conditioning
theory.
not entirely learned

According to Skinner, when you take an aspirin for your headache, taking the aspirin
is ________ whereas the headache is ________.
an operant; a negative reinforcer

The most effective form of punishment usually involves
penalties, such as loss of privileges.

Your friend works in a lab and is paid for each blood smear analyzed. Your friend is
operating on which schedule of reinforcement?
fixed ratio

Your professor likes to give pop quizzes in your psychology class, thus she is
promoting the ________ schedule of reinforcement.
variable interval

The notion that learning produces physical changes in the synapses of the brain is
consistent with
long-term potentiation.

The key difference between the two main forms of schedules of reinforcement is
whether
reinforcement is determined by time or by number of responses.

B.F. Skinner was a radical behaviorist who refused to
speculate about what happens inside an organism.

Which of the following would NOT be an example of learning?
a. A newborn infant sucks on a nipple filled with milk.
b. A teenager falls asleep after staying awake for 96 hours.
c. A rat presses a lever to obtain a food pellet.
d. You wince when you see a long needle similar to the one that hurt you during a drug
injection last week.
e. A and B are correct.
e. A and B are correct.

Jane’s dog will listen to her commands but ignores her sister’s commands. Jane’s dog
would be demonstrating
stimulus discrimination.

Gina walks into her psychology class on the first day, and she sits next to Roger. She
thinks his looks are decent, but by the end of the semester she finds him to be quite
attractive due to
the mere exposure effect.

Thorndike’s idea that responses that brought about positive outcomes would likely be
repeated is called
the law of effect.

Which of the following is NOT a key difference between operant and classical
conditioning?
whether they attempt to explain how learning occurs

The longest interval between the CS and UCS is required for classical conditioning
of
conditioned fear.

The best way to ensure that your son will continue to clean his room once he has
started doing it is to
reward him some, but not all, of the times he cleans his room.

In the Pavlov study, the salivation to the tone represents the _____________________
after conditioning.
conditioned response (CR)

________ are consequences that alter the likelihood of behaviors.
Rewards and punishments

Insight learning involves
the perception of familiar objects in new forms or relationships.

Negative reinforcement involves
the removal of an aversive stimulus.

Studies of observational learning demonstrate that
learning can occur in the absence of personal experience.

As discrimination tasks with unpleasant stimuli become increasingly more difficult
we can expect
agitation due to experimental neurosis.

Positive reinforcers ________ the likelihood of ensuing responses.
increase

Damage to neurons within the ________ that use the transmitter ________ would be
expected to diminish the experience of reward.
limbic system; dopamine

The linkage between a UCS and the UCR requires
no learning.

________ reported that watching violent behaviors makes children more likely to
behave violently?
Bandura

Which of these punishments is LEAST likely to be effective?
Brandon’s parents call him a liar when he is dishonest.

An eye blink is an example of
a reflex.

________ is a procedure for changing behavior by reinforcing responses that
approach the desired goal.
Shaping

Which of the following is NOT an example of an operant?
A dog salivates after seeing a bowl of meat.

During summer camp, campers get a sticker each time they demonstrate good
sportsmanship. When they have earned 10 stickers, they may select a candy bar. This
represents an example of
a token economy.

If you salivate to the smell of a hamburger and fries, learning theory would suggest
that you have formed an association based on
classical conditioning.

In terms of the equity of punishment,
schools more often use punishment to control members of racial minority groups.

The Premack principle states that
a preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred one.

The two main types of behavioral learning are
classical conditioning and operant conditioning.

A(n) ________ refers to the behavior elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned response