Psychology Myers 11th Edition Prologue

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Structuralism
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Early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind
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Functionalism
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Early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function — how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
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Behaviorism
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The view that psychology (1) should be and objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most psychologists today agree with (1) but not (2)
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Humanistic psychology
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Historically significant perspective that emphasized human growth potential
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Cognitive neuroscience
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The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
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Psychology
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The science of behavior and mental processes
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Nature-nurture issue
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The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
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Natural selection
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The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
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Evolutionary psychology
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The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
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Behavior genetics
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The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
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Culture
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The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
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Positive Psychology
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The scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive
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Levels of analysis
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The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
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Biopsychosocial approach
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An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
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Basic research
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Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
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Applied research
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Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
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Counseling psychology
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A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
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Clinical psychology
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A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treat people with psychological disorders
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Psychiatry
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A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
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Community psychology
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A branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups
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Testing effect
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Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning
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SQ3R
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A study method incorporating five steps: survey, question, read, retrieve, review

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