Psychology HL Paper 3 Key Terms

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Case study
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In-depth and holistic investigation of the behaviour of either an individual or group.
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Closed questions
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Closed questions trigger the participants to talk in a focused way.
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Coding
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Involves finding specific categories in the data categories.
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Confidentiality
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The research data will not be known to anyone outside the study.
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Contrast questions
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Allow the participant to compare events and experiences.
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Covert observation
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Participants are unaware of the presence of the researcher and they are not made aware that their behaviour is being observed.
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Credibility
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Similar to validity, when the findings of the research reflect the meanings as they are described by the participants. Often interpretations of interviews are presented to the interviewee to make sure that he or she agrees with the interpretation. This establishes credibility. Corresponds to the concept of internal validity that is used in quantitative research (Rolfe, 2006).
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Data saturation
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The point in data analysis whereby the researcher can no longer find new information in the interview transcripts.
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Deductive processes
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Hypothesis testing where the evidence is used to support a conclusion.
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Descriptive questions
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Invite the participant to give a general account of something.
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Epistemology
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The theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope. Epistemology is the investigation of what distinguishes justified belief from opinion.
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Evaluative questions
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Invite the participant to respond with their feelings about someone or something.
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Focus group
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Group interview.
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Generalizing
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Ability to apply findings to a wider demographic beyond those who have participated in a study.
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Inductive content analysis
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Analysis of qualitative data in which theory and hypotheses are derived from the data rather than established before the data is gathered.
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Inductive processes
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Collected evidence is used to reach a conclusion.
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Interviewer effects
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Occurs when the way the interviewer carries out the interview affects the behaviour of the interviewee. This may be the result of body language, gender, tone or the way the interviewer responds.
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Narrative interviews
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Used to obtain the stories people employ to interpret their lives and the world around them. It is the ways that people organize and make connections between events that are of interest to the narrative interviewer.
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Naturalistic observation
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Observation in which the researcher observes behaviour that naturally occurs.
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Non-participant observation
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Where the observer is not part of the situation being studied.
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Ontology
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The metaphysical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
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Open-ended questions
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Open-ended questions give the participant an opportunity to respond more freely.
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Overt observation
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Means that the observed group is aware of the presence of the researcher and that their behaviour is being observed.
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Participant observation
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Means that the observer takes part in the situation being studied while carrying out the research.
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Post-modern transcription
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The method of transcribing recorded interviews that goes beyond traditional transcription by including the words, volume, pitch, speed, pauses, facial expressions, gestures and other non-verbal communication.
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Purposive sampling
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Where participants are chosen based on specific characteristics.
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Quota sampling
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Like stratified sampling in quantitative research. The participants are reflective of the group from which they are drawn. Participants reflect the diversity of the target population.
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Rapport
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Trusting and open relationship (between the interviewer and participant).
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Reactivity
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Refers to when a participant behaves differently from normal because he or she is being observed.
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Reflexivity
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Involves the researcher documenting his or her beliefs, attitudes, values, theoretical position and reactions to the object of study and assessing the likely impact of these on the collection and analysis of data.
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Reliability
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Research is reliable if the research methods and techniques used produce accurate data.
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Semi-structured interview
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Form of interview in which the interviewer asks questions from a pre-decided list of questions. Although the researcher may obtain other information, the key goal is to obtain responses to the interview guide.
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Snowballing sampling
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Also called network sampling. Researcher asks participants if they could recommend other participants. This is often used with hidden populations.
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Structural questions
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Invite the participant to identify structures and meanings to use to make sense of the world.
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Traditional transcription
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Method of transcribing recorded interviews by simply writing down what the participant said, word for word.
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Transference
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Documenting the conditions under which a study was conducted so that it can be determined to what extent the research findings can be generalized. The extent to which generalization may happen is the level of transference.
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Triangulation
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Collecting information through the use of different perspectives, methods and sources (cross-checking of information and conclusions) to check if the interpretation of data can be supported.
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Trustworthiness
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Trustworthiness of research is established when the findings of the research reflect the meanings as they are described by the participants.
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Validity
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The research explains what it is intended to.
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Verbatim
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Used in most qualitative research, and is generally enough for thematic analysis. \”Word by word\” transcription.

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