Psychology Final Study Guide: Part 3

question

Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
answer

Social phsycology
question

Attribution theory was designed to account for
answer

how people explain others’ behavior
question

The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.
answer

situational influences; personal dispositions
question

In explaining the actions of people we do not know well, we often demonstrate
answer

the fundamental attribution error
question

Observing yourself on a video replay is most likely to increase your tendency to attribute your behavior to
answer

personality traits
question

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.
answer

belief-based feelings
question

Opinion change resulting from a thoughtful focus on the content of arguments illustrates
answer

central route persuasion
question

Instead of providing arguments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images. This strategy best illustrates
answer

peripheral route persuasion
question

The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by
answer

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
question

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
answer

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request
question

The set of prescribed behaviors associated with a particular social position is best described as a(n)
answer

role
question

The ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next constitute
answer

culture
question

Norms are best described as
answer

rules for socially accepted behavior
question

Unconsciously mimicking those around us is known as
answer

the chameleon affect
question

We tend to feel cheerful around happy people and sad around depressed people. This illustrates
answer

mood linkage
question

Prejudice is best defined as
answer

an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
question

Overgeneralized beliefs about a group of people that often underlie prejudicial emotions are called
answer

stereotypes
question

Prejudice is a(n) ________; discrimination is a(n) ________.
answer

attitude; behavior
question

Worldwide, women are ________ likely than men to live in poverty, and they are ________ likely than men to be illiterate.
answer

more; more
question

Prejudice is most likely to develop as a way of justifying
answer

social inequalities
question

People who blame victims of cancer for their medical misfortune best illustrate
answer

the just world phenomenon
question

The tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races is called
answer

the other- race effect
question

Only when experimental participants were informed that a woman was raped did they perceive the woman’s behavior as inviting rape. This best illustrates that victim blaming is fueled by
answer

hindsight bias
question

According to the text, aggression always involves
answer

the intent to hurt
question

Following the consumption of alcohol, people are increasingly likely to respond to minor frustrations with violent outbursts. This best illustrates
answer

the interaction of biology and experience
question

Comparisons of identical and fraternal twins highlight the impact of ________ on aggression.
answer

genetic influences
question

The frustration-aggression principle suggests that anger results when
answer

the attempt to achieve a goal is blocked
question

Joel’s sexually violent behavior is influenced by his unrealistic sexual scripts, crowded housing conditions, and abuse of alcohol. A comprehensive understanding of Joel’s behavior is most clearly provided by
answer

a biopsychosocial approach
question

On average, Internet-formed friendships and romantic relationships are ________ likely than relationships formed in person to last beyond two years. When conversing online with someone for 20 minutes, participants in one study felt ________ liking for that person than they did for someone they talked with face to face.
answer

more; more
question

The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people
answer

experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar
question

After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy’s reaction best illustrates
answer

the mere exposure effect
question

People’s physical attractiveness is unrelated to their
answer

happiness
question

Women are attracted to healthy-looking men, but especially to those who seem to be
answer

mature
question

Which of the following is most clearly supported by research on social attraction?
answer

Birds of a feather flock together
question

The two-factor theory of emotion has been used to explain
answer

passionate love
question

Oxytocin is a hormone that has been found to promote feelings of
answer

trust
question

Sharing household chores ranks high on a list of things people associate with successful marriages. This best illustrates the perceived value of
answer

equity
question

Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of
answer

self- disclosure
question

Following the 9/11 terrorist attack on New York, people across the country donated their time and money to assist the devastated community. This behavior best illustrates
answer

altruism
question

Social psychologists have observed people’s willingness to pick up dropped coins or pencils in elevators in order to study the
answer

bystander effect
question

When 68-year-old Mrs. Blake had a flat tire on a fairly isolated highway, she received help from a passerby in less than 10 minutes. One year later, when she had a flat tire on a busy freeway, an hour elapsed before someone finally stopped to offer assistance. Mrs. Blake’s experience best illustrates the
answer

bystander effect
question

The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the
answer

emergency is observed by a number of people
question

A failure to aid a stranger who needs help in an emergency situation is especially likely when people
answer

are in a hurry
question

According to social exchange theory, altruistic behavior is guided by
answer

calculations of costs and benefits
question

The expectation that people should return help, not harm, to those who have helped them is called
answer

the reciprocity norm
question

The social-responsibility norm refers to the expectation that people should
answer

help those who need help
question

To a social psychologist, a perceived incompatibility of goals is indicative of
answer

conflict
question

After a yearlong drought, the city of Pine Bluffs has banned all lawn sprinkling. Many residents believe, however, that continued watering of their own lawn will have little effect on total water reserves. Consequently, there is a disastrous drain on city water reserves caused by widespread illegal sprinkling. This incident best illustrates the dynamics of
answer

social traps
question

Two conflicting groups who share the same negative views of one another demonstrate
answer

mirror image perceptions
question

To help people avoid social traps, psychologists should promote an increased awareness of
answer

the social- reciprocity norm

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member