Psychology chp 10

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personality
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______ refers to the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person Personality Maturation Development Cognition
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personality
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Ashworth is interested in the pattern of enduring characteristics of people that produce consistency and individuality in a given person. Ashworth is interested in people’s _____
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psychodynamic
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_____ approaches to personality are approaches that assume that personality is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness and over which they have no control humanistic behavioral evolutionary psychodynamic
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psychodynamic
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Dr. Chase believes that one’s personality largely reflects inner forces over which one has not control. Dr. Chase appears to take a (n) _______ approach to personality humanistic behavioral psychodynamic evolutionary
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conscious experience
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According to Freud’s theory, _____ is only a small part of our psychological makeup and experience unconscious conflicts preconscious processes conscious experience instinctual drive
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the unconscious
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According to Freud, much of our behavior is motivated by the unconscious semi-conscious processes conscious experience the subconscious mind
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unconscious
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The _____ is part o the personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware. semi-conscious conscious subconscious unconscious
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unconscious
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To Freud, much of our personality is determined by our unconscious semi-conscious conscious subconscious
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preconscious
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The ____ contains material tha tis not threatening and is easily brought to mind, such as the knowledge that 2+2=4 preconscious semi-conscious conscious subconscious
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unconscious
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the ____ provides a \”safe haven\” for our recollections of threatening events semi-conscious unconscious conscious subconscious
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id
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The ___ is the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality whose sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses ego id superego conscience
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pleasure
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The id operates according to the _____ principle in which the goal is the immediate reduction of tension and the maximization of satisfaction of pleasure
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ego
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The ____ is part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world ego alter ego superego conscience
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reality
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The ego operates according to the _____ principle in which instinctual energy is restrained to maintain the individual’s safety and to help integrate the person into society pleasure reciprocity attitude reality
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ego
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Which of the following components of personality is related to the reality principle? ego id superego conscience
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superego
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The ____ is the final personality structure to develop in childhood, represents the rights and wrongs of society as taught and modeled by a person’s parents, teachers, and other significant individuals ego alter ego superego id
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superego
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The ____ includes the conscience, which prevents us from behaving in a morally improper way by making us feel guilty if we do wrong ego alter ego superego id
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they are both unrealistic
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What do the id and the superego have in common they both reflect society’s rules and constraints they are both unrealistic they are both motivated by primitive drives they are direct opposites
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psychosexual
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Developmental periods tha children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges are known as _____ stages psychosexual behavioral cognitive socio-culture
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fixations
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In Freud’s theory, concerns tha tpersist beyond the developmental period in which they first occur are termed fixations defense mechanisms complexes conflicts
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oral
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According to Freud, the ___ stage is a stage from birth to age 12 to 18 months, in which an infant’s center of pleasure is the mouth oral phallic anal genital
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phallic
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According to Freud, a period beginning around age 3 during which a child’s pleasure focuses on the genitals is known as the ____ stage oral phallic anal gential
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phallic
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According to Freud, the developing child must negotiate the Oedipal conflict during which stage of psychosexual development? oral genital anal phallic
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identification
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Young children resolve the Oedipus conflict by wanting to be as much like the same sex parent as possible, a process termed identification projection reflection sublimation
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identification
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____ is the process of wanting to be like another person as much as possible, imitation that person’s behavior and adopting similar beliefs and values identification projection reflection sublimation
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latency
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After the resolution of the Oedipal conflict, typically around age 5 or 6, children move into the ____ period, which lasts until puberty oral genital anal latency
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genital
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According to Freud, the ____ stage is the period from puberty until death, marked by mature sexual behavior (that is, sexual intecourse) oral genital anal phallic
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genital stage
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In Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, mature adult sexuality develops during the latency period genital stage phallic stage oral stage
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defense mechanisms
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In order to protect herself from experiecing anxiety, Nancy is attributing her won unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Nancy is using a (n) self-actualization principle fixation process defense mechanisms preconscious process
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repression
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Probably the most primary of the defense mechanisms is that of denial repression projection sublimination
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repression
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______ is the primary defense mechanism in which unacceptable or unpleasant id impulses are pushed back into the unconscious denial repression projection sublimation
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anna freud
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The study of defense mechanisms is associated not only wih Sigmund Freud but also with bertha pappenheim alfred adler davis buss anna freud
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behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development
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When regression is used as a defense mechanism people divert unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings, or behaviors behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development provide self-justifying explanations in place of the actual, but threatening, reason for their behavior attribute unwanted impulses and feelings to someone else
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reaction formation
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In order to protect herself from unconscious anxiety, Susie convinces herself that she hates action movies, whereas on an unconscious level she actually loves them. This illustrates the defense mechanism known as repression reaction formation projection rationalization
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rationalization
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Which of following defense mechanisms is used when people provide self-justifying explanations in place of the actual, but threatening, reason for their behavior? rationalization reaction formation projection sublimation
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archetypes
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According to Jung, ______ are universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or experience (such as good and evil) prototypes archetypes stereotypes subtypes
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jung’s
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The Myers-Briggs type Indicator is a personality assessment widely used in business, industry, and education. Ultimatley, it seems from ______ theory. freud’s jung’s adler’s erikson’s
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karen horney
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_______ is often considered the first feminist psychologist karen horney mary calkins mertha pappenheim anna freud
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1930’s and 1940’s
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Karen Horeny’s conceptualizations were developed in the 1920’s 1930’s and 1940’s 1950’s 1960’s and 1970’s
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adler; helping them overcome feelings of personal inferiority
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According the _____, parents can facilitate their childrens development by: adler; helping them overcome feelings of personal inferiority horney; helping them master key tasks like weaning and toilet training horney; providing consistently and adequately for their needs adler; helping them master key tasks like weaning and toilet training
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cardinal
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A _____ trait is a single characteristic that directs most of a person’s activities. secondaru central primary cardinal
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secondary
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_____ traits are characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations and are less influential than other traits secondary central primary cardinal
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factor
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A graduate student is using a statistical method of identifying associations among a large number of variables to reveal more general patterns. She is performing a _____ analysis trend matrix factor correlation
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trait
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Dr. Montgomery, a personality theorist, seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality and consistencies in individuals’ behaviors. Dr. Montgomery is a (n) ______ theorist trait psychosexual humanistic cognitive
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openness
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Garner is imaginative, independent, and prefers variety. Brandy is is conventional, down to earth, and has limited interests. It is likely that Garner scores high while Brandy scores low on the Big Five personality dimensions of neuroticism openness extraversion agreeableness
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bandura’s social cognitive approach
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Which approach to personality emphasizes the role play by self-efficacy bandura’s social cognitive approach skinner’s behaviorist approach allport’s trait theory roger’s humanistic theory
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self-efficacy
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_____ is the belief that we have the persona; capabilities to master a situation ad produce positive outcomes self-efficacy self-regulation self-esteem self-actualization
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efficacy
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Rhiannon is confident she can complete a difficult problem set in one of her engineering courses. Rhiannon has high self- esteem efficacy actualization awareness
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efficacy
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Mrs. Linley is a middle school math teacher. She provides constant, consistent feedback on her student’s math assignments. She wants her students to have faith in their abilities to produce positive outcomes. Mrs. Linley is trying to develop her students’ self- awareness regulation efficacy actualization
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self-esteem
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______ is the component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self-evaluations self-regulation self-esteem self-actualization self-awareness
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biological and evolutionary
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________ approaches to personality are theories that suggest that important components of personality are inherited biological and evolutionary trait and learning humanistic and trait learning and evolutionary
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temperament
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the inborn behavioral style and characteristic way of responding that emerges early in life is known as outlook attachment style trait temperament
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temperament
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Baby Celeste is busy, active, and sleeps fitfully; her sister, by contrast, was calm and placid as a baby. this vignette illustrates differences in outlook intelligence temperament attachment style
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thrill-seeking
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According to the text, studies of the potential genetic basis of personality have identified a gene that may contribute to differences between people in the trait of thrill-seeking conscientiousness intuitiveness aggressiveness
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dopamine
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The text suggests that the neurotransmitter most closely related to individual differences in thrill- or sensations-seeking is norepinephrine serotonin acetylcholine dopamine
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humanistic
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_____ approaches to personality emphasizes peropl’s inherent goodness and their tendency to move toward higher levels of functioning evolutionary humanistic learning biological
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humanistic
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Which approach to personality takes the most optimistic view of people’s nature- that individuals are essentially good evolutionary humanistic learning biological
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rogers
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______ is a prominent psychologist associated with the humanistic perspective bandura skinner rogers freud
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actualization
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Humunistic psychologist suggest that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential, each in a unique way; that is. people have a fundamental drive toward self- regulation esteem actualization efficacy
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yields consistent measurements
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A psychological test is reliable when it measures what it is suppose to measure has been normed using a sample representative of those for whom the test has been designed yields consistent measurements measures the positives
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was discontinued in the early 1990’s
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Because of federal legislation, race norming on tests such as the General Aptitude Test Battery was discontinued in the 1970’s continues today was discontinued in the early 1990’s was reinstated in the 1980’s
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projective
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The TAT and the Rorschach are ____ tests of personality objective reflective projective self-report
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observing people in their own settings
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Behavioral assessment relies most heavily on the use of ambiguous stimuli observing people in their own settings the rigorous standardization of personality questionnaires the interpretive skill of the examiner

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