psychology chapter

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Dr. Joan Goodman is studying how memory changes as people get older. She is most likely a(n) psychologist.
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developmental
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In Piaget’s stage of concrete operational intelligence, the child acquires an understanding of the principle of:
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conservation
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Piaget held that egocentrism is characteristic of the
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preoperational stage
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During which stage of cognitive development do children acquire object permanence?
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sensorimotor
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The rooting reflex occurs when a:
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newborn’s cheek is touched.
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Harlow’s studies of attachment in monkeys showed that
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a cloth mother produced the greatest attach-ment response
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When psychologists discuss maturation, they a rereferring to stages of growth that are notinfluenced by:
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nurture.
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he developmental theorist who suggested that securely attached children develop an attitude of basic trust is
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Erikson
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Research findings on infant motor development care consistent with the idea that
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maturation of physical skills is relatively unaf-fected by experience
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According to Erikson, the central psychological challenges pertaining to adolescence, young adulthood, and middle age, respectively, are
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identity formation; intimacy; generativity.
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In preconventional morality, the person:
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obeys to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.
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Which of the following is correct?
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Early maturing boys are more popular andself-assured than boys who mature late
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A person’s general ability to think abstractly iscalled intelligence. This ability generally with age
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fluid; decreases
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Among the hallmarks of growing up are a boy’s first ejaculation and a girl’s first menstrual period, which also is called
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menarche.
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An elderly person who can look back on life with satisfaction and reminisce with a sense of completion has attained Erikson’s stage of
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integrity
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According to Piaget, the ability to think logically about abstract propositions is indicative of the stage of
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formal operations.
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The cognitive ability that has been shown to decline during adulthood is the ability to
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recall new information.
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Which of the following statements concerning the effects of aging is true?
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The aging process can be significantly affected by the individual’s activity patterns.
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Longitudinal tests:
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study the same people at different times.
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The average age at which puberty begins is in boys; in girls, it is
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13; 11
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After puberty, the self-concept usually becomes:
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more positive in both boys and girls.
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Adolescence is marked by the onset of:
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puberty.
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Of the following, which is a possible cause of dementia?
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stroke brain tumor alcoholism All of the above are possible causes
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The end of menstruation is called:
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menopause.
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The popular idea that terminally ill and bereaved people go through predictable stages, such as denial, anger, and so forth:
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is not supported by research studies
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Stranger anxiety develops soon after:
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the concept of object permanence.
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Before Piaget, people were more likely to believe that
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the child’s mind is a miniature model of theadult’s.
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Which is the correct sequence of stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?
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sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete opera-tional, formal operation
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A child can be born a drug addict because:
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drugs used by the mother will pass into thechild’s bloodstream.
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A child whose mother drank heavily when shew as pregnant is at heightened risk of
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being born with the physical and cognitive abnormalities of fetal alcohol syndrome
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Which is the correct order of stages of prenatal development?
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zygote, embryo, fetus
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The term critical period refers to
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a restricted time for learning.
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Which of the following was not found by Harlow in socially deprived monkeys?
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They showed abnormal physical develop-ment.
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Most people’s earliest memories do not predate of age.
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6 months
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Insecurely attached infants who are left by their mothers in an unfamiliar setting often will
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be indifferent toward their mothers on theirreturn.
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Whose stage theory of moral development was based on how people reasoned about ethical dilemmas?
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is more appropriate than the longitudinalmethod for studying intellectual change overthe life span
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The social clock refers to:
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typical ages for starting a career, marrying,and so on.
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To which of Kohlberg’s levels would moral reasoning based on the existence of fundamental human rights pertain?
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postconventional morality
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In Erikson’s theory, individuals generally focus on developing during adolescence and then during young adulthood
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identity; intimacy
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After menopause, most women:
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feel a new sense of freedom.
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Notable achievements in fields such a sare often made by younger adults in their late twenties or early thirties, when intelligence is at its peak
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mathematics; fluid
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After their grown children have left home, most couples experience:
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greater happiness and enjoyment in their relationship
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Underlying Alzheimer’s disease is a deterioration in neurons that produce
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acetylcholine
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A person’s accumulation of stored information,called intelligence, generally with age.
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crystallized; increases
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In terms of incidence, susceptibility to short-term illnesses with age and susceptibility to long-term ailments with ag
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decreases; increases
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Stage theories have been criticized because they fail to consider that development may be significantly affected by
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variations in the social clock. each individual’s experiences. each individual’s historical and cultural set-ting. all of the above
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Research on the American family indicates that:
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fewer than 23 percent of unmarried adults, but nearly 40 percent of married adults, report being \”very happy\” with life. the divorce rate is now one-half the marriagerate. of those who divorce, 75 percent remarry.
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Compared to when he was younger, 4-year-oldAntonio is better able to empathize with his friend’s feelings. This growing ability to take another’s perspective indicates that Antonio is acquiring a
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theory of mind.
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Calvin, who is trying to impress his psychology professor with his knowledge of infant motor development, asks why some infants learn to rollover before they lift their heads from a prone position, while others develop these skills in the opposite order. What should Calvin’s professor conclude from this question
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Calvin doesn’t know what he’s talking about.Although some infants reach these develop-mental milestones ahead of others, the order is the same for all infants
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Deborah is a mathematician and Willie is a philosopher. Considering their professions
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Deborah will make her most significant career accomplishments at an earlier age than Williewill.
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Based on the text discussion of maturation and popularity, who among the following is probably the most popular sixth grader
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Rob, the tallest, most physically mature boy inthe class
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As a child observes, liquid is transferred from a tall, thin tube into a short, wide jar. The child is asked if there is now less liquid in order to deter-mine if she has mastered
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the concept of conservation.
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I am 14 months old and fearful of strangers. I am in Piaget’s stage of cognitive development
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sensorimotor
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I am 3 years old, can use language, and have trouble taking another person’s perspective. I am in Piaget’s stage of cognitive development
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preoperational
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In Piaget’s theory, conservation is to egocentrism as the stage is to the stage
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concrete operational; preoperational
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Four-year-old Jamail has a younger sister. When asked if he has a sister, he is likely to answer; when asked if his sister has a brother, Jamail is likely to answer
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yes; no
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In a 1998 movie, a young girl finds that a gaggle of geese follow her wherever she goes because she was the first \”object\” they saw after they were born. This is an example of
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imprinting.
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Joshua and Ann Bishop have a 13-month-old boy.According to Erikson, the Bishops’ sensitive, loving care of their child contributes to
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the child’s sense of basic trust.
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Fourteen-year-old Cassandra feels freer and more open with her friends than with her family Knowing this is the case, Cassandra’s parents should
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be concerned, because deteriorating parent-teen relationships, such as this one, are oftenfollowed by a range of problem behaviors
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Thirteen-year-old Irene has no trouble defeating her 11-year-old brother at a detective game that requires following clues in order to deduce the perpetrator of a crime. How might Piaget explain Irene’s superiority at the game
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Being an adolescent, Irene is beginning todevelop abstract reasoning skills.
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Which of the following was not mentioned in the text as a criticism of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
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t does not account for the fact that the devel-opment of moral reasoning is culture-specific.
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Sixty-five-year-old Calvin cannot reason as well as he could when he was younger. More than likely, Calvin’s intelligence has declined
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they compare people who are not only differ-ent in age, but of different eras, education lev-els, and affluence
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Which statement illustrates cognitive development during the course of adult life?
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Adults in their forties have better recall mem-ory than adults in their seventies.
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Given the text discussion of life satisfaction pat-terns, which of the following people is likely to report the greatest life satisfaction?
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too little information to tell
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Which of the following statements is consistent with the current thinking of developmental psychologists?
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The consistency of personality in most peopletends to increase over the life span
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Sam, a junior in high school, regularly attends church because his family and friends think he should. Which stage of moral reasoning is Sam in
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conventional
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Research on social relationships between parents and their adolescent children shows that
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high school girls who have the most affection-ate relationships with their mothers tend toenjoy the most intimate friendships with girl-friends.
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Most contemporary developmental psychologists believe that
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the shaping of personality continues during adolescence and well beyond
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After a series of unfulfilling relationships, 30-year-old Carlos tells a friend that he doesn’t want to marry because he is afraid of losing his freedom and independence. Erikson would say that Carlos is having difficulty with the psychosocial task of:
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intimacy versus isolation.
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Research on the relationship between self-reported happiness and employment in American women has revealed that:
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the quality of a woman’s experience in her various roles is more predictive of happiness than the presence or absence of a given role

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