Psychology, Chapter 8, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

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Prototype
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Sue had difficulty recognizing that a sea horse was a fish because it did not closely resemble her _________ of a fish.
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Algorithm
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A methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems is a _________.
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Heuristics
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Simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called:
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Confirmation bias
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The ____________ ____ refers to the tendency to search for information consistent with our preconceptions.
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Fixations
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Some people are unable to arrange 6 matches to form 4 equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a 3-dimensional arrangement. This best illustrates the hazards of:
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The representativeness heuristic
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Jill suffered symptoms so similar to pregnancy-induced morning sickness that she erroneously concluded she was pregnant. Her conclusion best illustrates the influence of:
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The availability heuristic
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A TV image of a starving child had a greater impact on Jim’s perception of the extensiveness of world hunger than did a statistical chart of the scope of the problem. This suggests that his assessment of the world hunger problem is influenced by:
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Overconfidence
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College students routinely underestimate how much time it will take them to complete assigned course projects. This best illustrates the impact of:
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Babbling
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The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage.
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Telegraphic speech
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___________ ______ is most closely associated with the two-word stage of language development.
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Noam Chomsky
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____ _______ has emphasized that the acquisition of language by children is facilitated by an inborn readiness to learn grammatical rules.
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Stanford-Binet
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For the original version of the ______________, IQ was defined as mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.
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Gardner
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Those who define intelligence as academic aptitude are most likely to criticize:
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Aptitude
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Tests designed to predict ability to learn new skills are called ________ tests.
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Achievement
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___________ tests are designed to assess learned knowledge or skills.
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Heritability
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The ____________ of intelligence refers to the percentage of variation in intelligence within a group that is attributable to genetic factors.
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Spelling
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Girls are most likely to outperform boys in:
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Math
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Boys are most likely to outnumber girls in a class for students gifted in:

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