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Psychology Chapter 2 Test Answers

Flashcard maker : Ewan Knight
educated guess

a production of the same results after doing a study with different circumstances

a study method in which people are asked to respond to a series of questions about a particular subject

target population
the whole group that a researcher wants to study or describe

part of the target population

random sample
a sample selected by chance from a target population; each member of the population has a chance of being selected

stratified sample
a sample in which subgroups in the population are represented proportionally

predisposition to a certain point of view despite what facts suggest

volunteer bias
the prejudice a volunteer might bring to a study; usually have different outlook from people who do not volunteer

case study method
an in depth investigation of an individual or small group; psychologists use what they learn to generalize broader principles that apply to larger population

longitudinal method
a method of study in which researchers select a group of participants and then observe those participants over a period of time

cross sectional method
instead of following a set of individuals over a number of years, researchers select a sample that includes different ages

naturalistic observation method
observing someone as they act naturally and interact with others; aka field study

laboratory observation method
a method of study that controls a setting and allows for experimentation and observation

measure of how closely one thing is related to another

positive correlation
a relation in which when one variable goes up, the other goes up ex. achievement and salary

negative correlation
a relation in which when one variable goes up, the other goes down ex. stress and health

method researchers use to answer questions about cause and effect

factors that can vary or change

independent variable
factor that researchers manipulate so that they can determine its effect

dependent variable
factor that relies on the changes made to the independent variable

experimental group
the group in experiment that receives the treatment

control group
the group in experiment that does not receive a treatment

controlled experiment
an experiment that has both an experimental group and a control group

placebo effect
substance or treatment that has no effect apart from a person’s belief in its effect

single blind study
a study in which participants do not know they are in the experimental group or the control group

double blind study
study in which both the participants and the researchers are unaware of who is the experimental or control group; uses experiment organizer

central tendency
number that describes average score of a distribution

standard deviation
measure of distance of every score from the mean; subtract the mean from each score

standards for proper and responsible behavior

the american psychological association; sets restrictions against studies, etc.

informed consent
people agree to the research only after they have been given an overview of the research and have been given the choice of participation

animal research
the use of animals in psychological studies; usually not harmed but cases in which they are harmed causes controversy; used as last alternative