Psychology Chapter 1 study guide







The scientific study of behavior and mental processes


Knowledge or study

Relied on assumptions (not tested) about human nature

Empirical Evidence
Information gained from direct observation

Behavior / Overt
Anything that can be directly observed; outward action (crying, smiling)

Mental Processes / Covert
Cannot be directly observed; internal process (remembering, thinking)

Goals of Psychology
To describe, understand, predict, and control behavior

Critical Thinking
Ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information

Mary Calkins
First female president of APA who conducted pioneering work on memory (1905)

Margaret Washburn
First woman awarded a Ph. D. in psychology (1894)

Francis Sumner
First African-American man awarded a Ph. D. in psychology (1920)

Inez Prosser
First African-American woman awarded a Ph. D.

Psychology must study observable behavior objectively

Behaviorists study relationship between
Stimuli (environmental events) & Responses (any identifiable behaviors)

3 Behaviorists
John Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. F. Skinner

Studied classical conditioning, which was discovered by Pavlov

Studied operant conditioning; although he studied animals, he believed humans learn the same way

Radical Behaviorism
Mental events, such as thinking, are not necessary to explain behavior

How the mind functions to help us adapt and survive

Admired Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection. Known for bringing study of animals in psychology

Gestalt Psychology
“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”

Max Wertheimer
Studied thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analyzing experiences into parts

Psychoanalytic Perspective
A Freudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of
unconscious conflicts

occurs when threatening thoughts are unconsciously held out of awareness

Sigmund Freud
was the founder of psychoanalytic psychology and created psychoanalysis, the first psychotherapy, to explore unconscious conflicts and emotional problems

Dealt with structure of mental life

Often disagreed, and no way to prove who was correct

Edward Tichener
Took Wundt’s idea and brought it to the U.S. and renamed it structuralism

Wilhelm Wundt
Father of psychology

Looking inward (examining and reporting your thoughts, feelings, etc.)

Cultural Relativity
the principle that an individual human’s beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual’s own culture

Eclectic Approach
Drawing insights from a variety of perspectives since a single perspective is unlikely to explain all human behavior. Most psychologists use this

Biopsychology View
Behavior is shaped by internal physical, chemical, and biological processes

Interdisciplinary field formed by biopsychologists, biologists and other scientists who share the perspective of biophsychology

Evolutionary View
Behavior is shaped by the process of evolution

Biological perspective
Biopsychology View & Evolutionary View

Psychological Perspective
Behavioral view, Cognitive view, Psychodynamic view, Humanistic view

Behavioral View
Behavior is shaped by one’s environment

Cognitive View
Behavior is shaped by mental processing of information

Psychodynamic View
Behavior is shaped by unconscious processes

Humanistic View
Behavior is shaped by self-image, subjective perception, and needs for personal growth

Abraham Maslow
Made Hierarchy of Needs

Your perception of your own body, personality, and capabilities

Positive and negative feelings you have about yourself

Frame of Reference
Mental perspective used for interpreting events

Fully developed one’s potential and becoming the best person possible

Sociocultural View
Behavior is shaped by one’s social and cultural context

Social Norms
Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of various groups

Social Science
the scientific study of human society and social relationships

any unfounded system that resembles psychology

Barnum Effect
a tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if they are stated in general terms

Scientific Method steps
Making observations, Defining a problem, Proposing a hypothesis, Gathering Evidence/Testing hypothesis, Theory Building, Publishing restults

A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances

Case Study
a process or record of research in which detailed consideration is given to the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time

Making measurements to discover relationships between events

Positive Correlation
Increases in one variable are matched by increases in the other variable

Negative Correlation
Increases in one variable are matched by decreases in the other variable

Investigating causes of behavior through controlled experiments

Independent Variable
The condition being investigated as a possible cause of change in behavior

Dependent Variable
The condition that is affected by the independent variable

Extraneous variables
Conditions or factors excluded from influencing the outcome of an experiment

Experimental Group
The group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental condition

Control Group
The group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable

Placebo Effect
Changes in behavior due to participants’ expectations that a drug will have some effect

Random Assignment
The use of chance to assign subjects to experimental and control groups

Naturalistic Observation
Observing behavior as it unfolds in natural settings

The error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining behavior

Observer Bias
The tendency of an observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations

A public polling technique used to answer psychological questions

Representative Sample
A small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population