Psychology: Chapter 1 Study Guide

psychologist who studied the effect of segregation on children
Kenneth B. Clark
mental process, such as a dream or memory
cognitive activity
school of psychology that looks at the basic elements of conscious experience
structuralism
contemporary psychological approach that emphasizes study of ethnicity, gender, culture, and sociocultural status
sociocultural perspective
founder of the school of behaviorism
John B. Watson
philosopher who stressed the importance of introspection
Socrates
founded structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt
school of psychology that describes experience as a whole rather than broken down into parts
gestalt psychology
action that can be observed or measured
behavior
wrote the first modern psychology textbook
William James
Psychological _____ explain and predict what governs behavior and mental processes.
theories
Clinical psychologists _____ prescribe medication to a client, but psychiatrists _____.
can’t
can
_____ psychologists typically treat people with adjustment problems, rather than those with serious psychological disease.
counseling
Research that has no immediate application is know as _____ _____.
basic research
_____ and _____ psychologists offer suggestions on how to improve working conditions.
industrial
organizational
The Greek philosopher _____ wrote Peri Psyches, one of the first books about psychology.
Aristotle
During the Middle Ages, most Europeans believed that psychological problems were caused by _____.
demons
Along with history, anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology, psychology is one of the _____ _____.
social sciences
The school of _____ was concerned with studying how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment.
functionalism
In the 1800s psychologists established _____ for the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes.
laboratories
B.F. Skinner’s concept of _____ showed that an animal is more likely to repeat an action if rewarded for it.
reinforcement
_____ _____ founded psychoanalysis.
Sigmund Freud
_____ psychologists help prepare achievement tests, while _____ psychologists administer these tests.
educational
school
The _____ perspective argues that people can learn by experience and by observing others.
learning
The cognitive perspective focuses on _____ processes to explain human behavior.
mental
Psychology is defined as the…
-humanistic study of emotions and feelings
-sociological study of individual and group dynamics
-scientific study of behavior and mental processes
-study of supernatural phenomena
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
The main goals of psychology are to…
-observe, describe, explain, predict, and control behavior
-observe and describe feelings
-observe and describe phenomena that science cannot explain
-research and teach positive visualization
observe, describe, explain, predict, and control behavior
Two research methods widely used by psychologists are…
-precognition and the Ganzfeld procedure
-surveys and experiments
-water-float tests and lie-detector tests
-introspection and reinforcement
surveys and experiments
The practice of psychology is closely related to the natural sciences by…
-its concerns with the biological functions of the brain
-the way it conducts experiments
-the way it analyzes data and draws conclusion
-all of the above
all of the above
Many scientists do not believe in extrasensory perception, or ESP, because…
-ESP researcher Joseph Banks Rhine failed to find examples of clairvoyance
-experiments of ESP do not yield the same results twice
-the Ganzfeld procedure was not tested in a laboratory
-all of the above
experiments of ESP do not yield the same results twice
The majority of psychologists are…
-clinical psychologists
-counseling psychologists
-school psychologists
-developmental psychologists
clinical psychologists
Developmental psychologists are especially concerned with…
-testifying at legal trials
-developing aptitude tests for students
-changes that occur throughout the lifespan
-all of the above
changes that occur throughout the lifespan
Social psychologists differ from personality psychologists in their focus on…
-external rather than internal influences
-behavior rather than cognitive activity
-heredity rather than environmental causes for behavior
-all of the above
external rather than internal influences
Counseling psychologists encourage their clients to…
-clarify their goals
-overcome adjustment problems
-meet challenges
-all of the above
all of the above
Course planning and instructional methods for school districts are usually handled by…
-school psychologists
-developmental psychologists
-personality psychologists
-educational psychologists
educational psychologists
Modern psychology was born in the…
-4th century B.C., with the Greek philosophers
-1800s, after the birth of modern science
-1900s, with the founding of psychoanalysis
-Middle Ages, with tests to determine if a person was possessed
1800s, after the birth of modern science
The method of learning that stresses examining one’s own thoughts and feelings is…
-positive visualization
-Gestalt psychology
-introspection
-reinforcement
introspection
William James rejected structuralism and focused on…
-how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment
-discovering the basic elements of consciousness
-observe behavior only
-the effect of segregation on the self-esteem of children
how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment
According to Gestalt psychologists, much learning is accomplished by…
-reinforcement
-mechanical repetition
-sudden insight
-a slow, unconscious process
sudden insight
In its early days, the school of psychoanalysis stressed that behavior was caused by…
-heredity rather than environment
-environment rather than heredity
-unconscious motives and conflicts
-conscious choice and self-direction
unconscious motives and conflicts
The contemporary psychoanalytic perspective stresses the influence of…
-heredity rather than environment
-environment rather than heredity
-unconscious motives and conflicts
-conscious choice and self-direction
conscious choice and self-direction
The school of behaviorism defined psychology as…
-the scientific study or behavior and mental processes
-the biological study of the brain and its behavior
-the sociological study of group behavior
-the scientific study of observable behavior
the scientific study of observable behavior
The modern biological perspective of psychology studies…
-only the behavior of animals
-the effects of biological factors on our behavior
-the effects of the environment on human behavior
-the impact people have had on their environment
the effects of biological factors on our behavior
Human consciousness, experience, and self-awareness are the main concerns of…
-the school of behaviorism
-Freudian psychoanalysis
-the humanistic perspective
-the school of functionalism
the humanistic perspective
In contrast to other early psychologists, Sigmund Freud gained his understanding of human behavior…
-in a laboratory
-in consultations with patients
-through systematic surveys
-through studies of the nervous system
in a consultation with patients
What do biologically oriented psychologists study the nervous system?
what parts of the brain are involved in specific behavior and
mental processes, influence of genes on personality traits
According to cognitive psychologists, how do people store and retrieve information?
peoples brains process information like computers, people
store information in their working memories and storage
facilities like a computers hard drive
What was Sigmund Freud’s theory of aggression?
aggression was a common response to the stresses of
every day life, most people hold in their aggression to avoid
rejection and retaliation, people need outlets such as
sports for their pint up aggressive anger
How did the sociocultural perspective broaden the subjects studied by psychology?
study ethnicity and gender
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