Psychology Chapter 1 study guide

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Knowledge or study
Relied on assumptions (not tested) about human nature
Empirical Evidence
Information gained from direct observation
Behavior / Overt
Anything that can be directly observed; outward action (crying, smiling)
Mental Processes / Covert
Cannot be directly observed; internal process (remembering, thinking)
Goals of Psychology
To describe, understand, predict, and control behavior
Critical Thinking
Ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information
Mary Calkins
First female president of APA who conducted pioneering work on memory (1905)
Margaret Washburn
First woman awarded a Ph. D. in psychology (1894)
Francis Sumner
First African-American man awarded a Ph. D. in psychology (1920)
Inez Prosser
First African-American woman awarded a Ph. D.
Psychology must study observable behavior objectively
Behaviorists study relationship between
Stimuli (environmental events) & Responses (any identifiable behaviors)
3 Behaviorists
John Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. F. Skinner
Studied classical conditioning, which was discovered by Pavlov
Studied operant conditioning; although he studied animals, he believed humans learn the same way
Radical Behaviorism
Mental events, such as thinking, are not necessary to explain behavior
How the mind functions to help us adapt and survive
Admired Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection. Known for bringing study of animals in psychology
Gestalt Psychology
“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”
Max Wertheimer
Studied thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analyzing experiences into parts
Psychoanalytic Perspective
A Freudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of
unconscious conflicts
occurs when threatening thoughts are unconsciously held out of awareness
Sigmund Freud
was the founder of psychoanalytic psychology and created psychoanalysis, the first psychotherapy, to explore unconscious conflicts and emotional problems
Dealt with structure of mental life
Often disagreed, and no way to prove who was correct
Edward Tichener
Took Wundt’s idea and brought it to the U.S. and renamed it structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt
Father of psychology
Looking inward (examining and reporting your thoughts, feelings, etc.)
Cultural Relativity
the principle that an individual human’s beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual’s own culture
Eclectic Approach
Drawing insights from a variety of perspectives since a single perspective is unlikely to explain all human behavior. Most psychologists use this
Biopsychology View
Behavior is shaped by internal physical, chemical, and biological processes
Interdisciplinary field formed by biopsychologists, biologists and other scientists who share the perspective of biophsychology
Evolutionary View
Behavior is shaped by the process of evolution
Biological perspective
Biopsychology View & Evolutionary View
Psychological Perspective
Behavioral view, Cognitive view, Psychodynamic view, Humanistic view
Behavioral View
Behavior is shaped by one’s environment
Cognitive View
Behavior is shaped by mental processing of information
Psychodynamic View
Behavior is shaped by unconscious processes
Humanistic View
Behavior is shaped by self-image, subjective perception, and needs for personal growth
Abraham Maslow
Made Hierarchy of Needs
Your perception of your own body, personality, and capabilities
Positive and negative feelings you have about yourself
Frame of Reference
Mental perspective used for interpreting events
Fully developed one’s potential and becoming the best person possible
Sociocultural View
Behavior is shaped by one’s social and cultural context
Social Norms
Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of various groups
Social Science
the scientific study of human society and social relationships
any unfounded system that resembles psychology
Barnum Effect
a tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if they are stated in general terms
Scientific Method steps
Making observations, Defining a problem, Proposing a hypothesis, Gathering Evidence/Testing hypothesis, Theory Building, Publishing restults
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances
Case Study
a process or record of research in which detailed consideration is given to the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time
Making measurements to discover relationships between events
Positive Correlation
Increases in one variable are matched by increases in the other variable
Negative Correlation
Increases in one variable are matched by decreases in the other variable
Investigating causes of behavior through controlled experiments
Independent Variable
The condition being investigated as a possible cause of change in behavior
Dependent Variable
The condition that is affected by the independent variable
Extraneous variables
Conditions or factors excluded from influencing the outcome of an experiment
Experimental Group
The group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental condition
Control Group
The group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable
Placebo Effect
Changes in behavior due to participants’ expectations that a drug will have some effect
Random Assignment
The use of chance to assign subjects to experimental and control groups
Naturalistic Observation
Observing behavior as it unfolds in natural settings
The error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining behavior
Observer Bias
The tendency of an observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations
A public polling technique used to answer psychological questions
Representative Sample
A small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population