Psychology Chapter 1 Test Questions

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psychology
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the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
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wilhelm wundt
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founder of modern psychology; “the father of psych”; opened the first lab
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eb titchener
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founder of structuralism
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structuralism
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theory that analyzed the basic elements of thoughts and sensations to determine the structure of conscious experience
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gestalt psychology
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psychological perspective that emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
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william james
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first american psychologist and author of the first psychology textbook; developed functionalism
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functionalism
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theory that emphasized the functions of consciousness and the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment
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sigmund freud
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founder of psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic perspective and psychodynamic theory
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psychoanalytic perspective
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school of thought that focuses on how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts, abnormal behavior, personal observation
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ivan pavlov
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russian psychologist who showed that animals learn some things trhough association, observing animal learning
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john b watson
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founder of behaviorism
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behaviorism/behaviorist perspective
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school of thought that focuses on how we learn observable responses; observational response
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bf skinner
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american pyschologist whose brand of behaviorism focues on the role of responses in learning
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abraham maslow
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leader in humanistic psychology movement
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carl rogers
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leader in the humanistic movement
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humanistic psychology
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school of thought that focuses on how we learn observable responses
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jean piaget
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developmental and cognitive psychologist known for his studies of children’s thought processes
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cognitive perspective
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how we process information; our individual interpretations of an event affect how we respond
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biological perspective
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how our biological structures and substances underlie a given behavior,thought, or emotion; brain chemistry controls emotion
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social-cultural perspective
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how thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation; our up-bringing, home structure, culture
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behavioral perspective
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how we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation
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humanistic perspective
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how healthy people strive to reach their full potential
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psychodynamic perspective
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how we are affected by unconscious drives and conflicts
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behavior genetics
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school of thought that focuses on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
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positive psychology
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movement that focuses on the study of optimal human functioning and the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive
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basic research
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pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
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applied research
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scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
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scientific method
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a method of learning about the world through the application of critical thinking and tools such as observation, experimentation, and statistical analysis; hypothesis, experiment, observation, data, results
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nature
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genetic code passed along by your parents
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nurture
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the environmental factors that makes a person
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bias
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any condition or set of conditions that distorts data from what pure chance would have produced, three types
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intentional bias
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studies focus on a single factor of behavior, emphasizes some aspects of situation while playing less attention to others, experiments should be open
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experimental bias
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may hold a un/conscious in terms of gender, ethic, or socio economic groups, or other personal traits, can lead to error in selection of participants, creation of tests, interpretation of observation, tone of voice/facial expression maybe affecting participants perceptions
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participant bias
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participants are aware of experiment, they may behave or change behavior
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red
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excitement, danger, love, power and strength, signals attention, appetite improves
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pink
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innocent, soft, light hearted, some aggressive, some flamboyant
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orange
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radiant, hot, energized
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yellow
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energy, light, optimism, cheerful
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green
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nature, soothing, relaxing
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blue
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peace, tranquility, harmony, truth, nature, confidence, calms nerves
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purple
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royalty, passion, spirituality, mystery, wisdom, enlightenment
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brown
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earthy, wholesome, dependable, comforting, simplicity
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black
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sophistication, power, elegance, mystery, fear, evil, anger, death, and depth
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white
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reverence, new life, purity, cleanliness, peace, innocence, youth, marriage, humility
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gray
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security, conservative, practical, maturity

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