Psychology Chapter 1

Flashcard maker : Kenneth Miller
Psychology
The scientific study of behaviors & mental process
What are the three important terms of psychology?
Science
Behavior
Mental processes
What is the meaning of \”psychology has a long past but a short history\”
People have been studying psychology for a long time but it’s been a discipline for a short period
When was the first formal lab created?
1879
Who were the early Greek philosophers
Socrates, Plato & Aristotle
What is monism?
The idea that the mind & body are one
Who created/supported the idea of monism?
Socrates
What is dualism/Cartesian dualism?
Soul/mind could exist separate from the body but they can influence each other
Who supported this theory?
Plato & Descarte
What is nature?
Knowledge is inborn or innate
What is nurture?
Knowledge is learned, experience is an important role of the environment
Who challenged Descartes in saying that knowledge isn’t innate?
John Locke
What is tabula rasa?
The mind is a blank space
What is the empirical/experimental method?
Research on vision & perception: studying people’s reaction to changes in stimuli
Who used the empirical method?
Herman Von Helmbolt & Gustav Fecher
What is structuralism?
The study of consciousness: moment to moment awareness of yourself & environment
Who studied structuralism?
Wilhem Wundt — the father of psychology & Edward Titchner
Introspection is?
The idea of looking forward
What are the elements of consciousness?
Physical sensation
Feelings
Images
Who was William James?
First American psychologist, published a book going against Wundt’s atoms of experience & studied how consciousness let us adapt
What is psychometrics?
Quantify traits and characteristics testing
Who is the father of IQ testing?
Alfred binet
Who was Sir Francis Galton?
Studied the uniqueness of the individual, found that genius ect. may be hereditary
Who studied psychoanalytics?
Sigmund Freud
How did Freud study psychoanalytics?
Unconscience motivation, early childhood experience, case studies & theory of personality & psychotherapy
What is the iceberg theory of consciousness?
Conscious-aware of environment
Preconscious- memory/knowledge
Unconscious- things unaware
What did Erik Erikson study?
He looked at the social aspects of personality — lifespan approach
What is behaviorism?
The study of observational behavior
What did behavioral ism object?
Structuralism, functionalism & psychanalytics
Who was considered the founder of behavioral ism?
John Watson
Who was B.F Skinner?
Studied observational & measurable behavior, consequences, behavior through conditioning, modification, reinforcement & punishment & operate conditioning.
Who studied Gestalt psychology?
Wertheimer, Koffka, & Kohler
What did Gestalt object to?
Breaking things down– structuralism
What quote goes with Gestalt psychology?
\”The whole is greater than the sum of its parts\”
Who studied Humanism?
Carl Rodgers & Abraham Maslow
What did humanism object to?
Psychoanalytic — too much into the past, needs to focus on future
Behaviorism– too mechanical
What is humanism?
A more positive view of the self, affirms dignity & goodness, return of the human aspect & becoming the best you can be
What is cognitive psychology?
Actions governed by thought, studies mental processes,changes in problem solving abilities
What is Piaget?
Examining the nature of the mind
Who was involved with sociocultural perspective
Lev vygotsky
What is culture?
Group norms, values, beliefs, behaviors & traditions
Sociocultural perspective looks at what?
Looks at the differences & similarities of people among a diverse culture
What is biological perspective?
How the brain & other body functions regulate behavior
What are three types of biological perspective?
Behavioral neuroscience
Behavioral genetics
Evolutionary psychology
What is behavioral neuroscience?
The chemicals in the body & brain process
What is behavior genetics?
Genetics factor influence behavioral tendencies — twins
What is evolutionary psychology
Stresses natural selection
Inherited traits give some advantage
Qualities of our mates

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