Psychology Ch12

A person tries to change the belief, opinion, or course of action of another person through:
persuasion

People can reduce cognitive dissonance by:
forming new cognitions to justify their behavior

Which of the following statements best describes attitudes?
attitudes are learned through experiences as we live and work with others

Some research suggests that ____ is one of the main factors that influence people’s choices for selecting people they want to know better
physical attractiveness

According to Sternberg, love consists of intimacy, passion, and ____
commitment

Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love says that companionate love consists of:
intimacy and commitment

The sadistic behavior of the “guards” in Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study:
highlighted the influence that a social role can have on ordinary people

____ occurs when a person fails to take responsibility for action or inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility.
diffusion of responsibility

The war in Iraq, the design of the ship Titanic, and the Challenger disaster are all given in the textbook as examples of:
groupthink

Research on conformity suggests that if a ____ response is required, ____ show more conformity than ____
public; women; men

A person demanding ____ has power or authority to command a behavioral change, rather than just ask for a change
obedience

In Solomon Asch’s study, confederates were instructed to:
give the incorrect answer to the line-matching task

In the Milgram study and several similar studies, ____ percent of the participants went all the way up to the 450-volt shock level.
65

The effect that people’s awareness of stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior is:
stereotype vulnerability

Strategies for overcoming prejudice include:
intergroup and equal status contact

____ is the attitude about members of a particular social group and ____ is the behavior that can result from the attitude
prejudice; discrimination

Scapegoats are:
typically members of the out-group

The formation of in-groups and out-groups:
begins in childhood

The fact that Kitty Genovese did not receive help was most likely due to ____
the perceived presence of multiple witnesses

Shawn and Tanya start talking after they’ve ridden on the dorm elevator several times together. This is an example of which rule of attraction?
proximity

If your roommate asks you for a ride to campus and you agree, and then the next day asks if he can borrow your car, this is an example of the:
foot-in-the-door technique

Cindy tastes peas for the first time and realizes she does not like them. Cindy formed her attitude about peas through the process of:
direct contact

Justin walks into the morning meeting 15 minutes late. His boss, Marco, assumes that traffic was bad this morning. Marco is using an example of:
situational cause

Jim jumped into the ocean to save a drowning man, risking his own life in the process. He did so without any expectation of reward or getting anything in return for his actions. This is an example of:
altruism

Karen intentionally tries to hurt Lisa by spreading rumors about her. Karen is engaging in:
aggression

The Challenger disaster is a classic example of groupthink because:
some people knew the shuttle was not OK to launch, but they did not speak up and thereby disrupt group cohesion

As we interact with others on a daily basis, our behavior, feelings, and thoughts are often guided by:
social influence

In Milgram’s study, as the teachers became reluctant to continue, the experimenter:
told them that they had to continue

The fundamental attribution error is less likely:
in collectivist cultures

According to the ____, people either expand on what they hear or they pay attention to the surface characteristics of persuasive messages
elaboration likelihood model

Studies have found that the ____ is particularly active when people have made a decision that reduces dissonance and then acted on that decision
left frontal cortex

Sheri’s coworker, Stephanie, is very afraid of spiders and screams every time she sees one in the warehouse. After a few weeks of working closely with Stephanie in the warehouse, Sheri is afraid of spiders, too. This is an example of:
vicarious conditioning

When parents tell their children that smoking cigarettes is dangerous and unhealthy, and the children develop negative attitudes toward smoking, this is an example of:
direct instruction

The presence of others heavily influences helping behavior when a situation is:
ambiguous

Once someone has taken responsibility to help, the next step in the decision-making process is:
planning a course of action

In the Latane and Darley smoke-filled room study, participants were most likely to report the smoke when:
they were the only ones in the room

A police officer comes to Jane’s office to discuss personal safety with the employees there. Despite the seriousness of his message, the police officer jokes and laughs with the employees. Jane nevertheless takes what she learned seriously and begins to pay more attention to her safety. Jane used ____ when receiving the officer’s message.
central-route processing

The “jigsaw classroom”:
is a technique that gives each individual only part of the information needed to solve a problem, so they must work with others to find the solution

In explaining our own behavior, we tend to use situation rather than personal attributions. Such a phenomenon is known as:
the actor-observer bias

In one study, college students liked another student simply because they were told that the other student liked them. This is an example of which rule of attraction?
reciprocity

In Sternberg’s theory, ____ encompasses the physical aspects of love
passion

The door-in-the-face technique involves:
asking for a large commitment and then, after being refused, asking for a smaller commitment

In his experiment on conformity, Asch found that:
conformity increased with each new confederate, up to four confederates

According to your textbook, the ____ theory explains prejudice and discrimination between the Nazi soldiers and Jewish people during WWII
realistic conflict

Jackie is assigned to a group project. It is in her best subject, and she finds the material easy. Jackie will probably experience:
social facilitation

In order to teach her second grade students about ____, teacher Jane Elliot created in-groups and out-groups based on the superficial characteristic of eye color
discrimination

Harry’s friend Logan studies a lot, so Harry assumes that Logan is smart. Harry’s belief is based on:
implicit personality theory

Julie is a psychologist involved in figuring out how to get people to purchase a certain brand of computer. Julie is involved in:
consumer psychology

____ love, based on many years of shared responsibilities and experiences, is what binds many marriages together
companionate

Studies have found that in civil suits, if individual members of the jury favor stiff penalties, the deliberation process will result in even higher penalties. This illustrates:
group polarization