Psychology Ch 12

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Social psychology
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The branch of psychology that studies how people think, feel, and behave in social situations Ex. Work
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Social cognition
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The mental processes people use to make sense of their social environment. Ex. Thought process
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Social influence
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The effects of situational factors and other people on an individual’s behavior. Ex. Peer pressure
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Person perception
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The mental processes we use to form judgements and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people. Ex. Unconscious judgement
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Social norms
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The \”norms\” or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation Ex. Unspoken rules
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Social categorization
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The mental process of categorizing people into groups on the basis if their shared characteristics Ex. Grouping
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Implicit personality theory
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A network of assumptions of beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, behaviors. Ex. Assumptions
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Attribution
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The mental process of inferring the causes of people’s behavior, including one’s own. Also refers to the explanation made for a particular behavior. Ex. Life assumptions
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Fundamental attribution error
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The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attribution all bias that is common in individualistic cultures. Ex. Wrong assumptions
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Blaming the victim
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The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it. Ex. Rape vicitm
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Just world hypothesis
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The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get Ex. Social Darwinism
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Actor observer discrepancy
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The tendency to attribute one’s own behavior to external, situational causes, while attributing the behavior of others to internal, personal causes; especially likely to occur with regard to behaviors that lead to negative outcomes Ex. Attribution
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Self serving bias
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The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one’s own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes. Ex. Motivation
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Attitude
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A learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent Ex. Personal evaluations
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Cognitive dissonance
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An unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict Ex. Political affairs
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Prejudice
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A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group Ex. The attitude
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Stereotype
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A cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group Ex. Grouping
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In group
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A social group to which one belongs Ex. Nerds with nerds
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Out group
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A social group to which one does not belong Ex. Nerds with jocks
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Out group homogeneity effect
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The tendency to see members of out groups as very similar to one another. Ex. Outcasts
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In group bias
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The tendency to judge the behavior of in group member sap favorably and out group members favorably Ex. Discrimination
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Ethnocentrism
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The belief that ones own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tendency to use one’s own culture as standard by which to judge other cultures. Ex. African American vs. Caucasian
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Conformity
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The tendency to adjust one’s behavior, attitudes, of beliefs to group norms in response to real or imagined group pressure Ex. Submissive
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Normative social influence
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Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval. Ex. Peer pressure
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Informational social influence
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Behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct Ex. Math competition
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Obedience
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The performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an direct authority of person of Higher status. Ex. Parents
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Altruism
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Helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit Ex. Showy and flashy
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Prosocial behavior
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Any behavior that helps another, whether the underlying motive is self serving or selfless Ex. Selfless benevolence
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Bystander effect
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A phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress. Ex. Eventually someone will help
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Diffusion of responsibility
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A phenomenon in which the presence if other people makes if less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers Ex. Obligation
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Social loafing
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The tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is a group effort Ex. Someone will pick up the slack
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Social facilitation
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The tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance Ex. Striving to be the best I can be
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Dehindividuation
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The reduction of self awareness and inhibitions that can occur when a person is part of a group whose members feel anonymous. Ex. Social network

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