Psychology: An Exploration, Ciccarelli, Chapter 12

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psychopathology
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the study of abnormal behavior
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situational context
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the social or environmental setting of a person’s behavior
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subjective discomfort
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emotional distress or emotional pain
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maladaptive
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anything that does not allow a person to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life
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sociocultural perspective
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perspective in which abnormal behavior (as well as normal behavior is seen as the product of the learning and shaping of behavior within the context of the family, the social group to which one belongs, and the culture within which the family and social group exist
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cultural relativity
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the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which behavior takes place
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culture-bound syndromes
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disorders found only in particular cultures
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psychological disorder
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any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm others, or harms their ability to function in daily life
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biological model
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model of explaining behavior as caused by biological changes in the chemical, structural, or genetic systems of the body
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cognitive psychologists
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psychologists who study the way people think, remember, and mentally organize information
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biopsychosocial model
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perspective in which abnormal behavior is seen as the result of the combined and interacting forces of biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences
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anxiety disorders
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disorders in which the main symptom is excessive or unrealistic anxiety and fearfulness
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free-floating anxiety
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anxiety that is unrelated to any realistic, known source
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phobia
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an irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity
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social phobia
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fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation
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specific phobia
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fear of objects or specific situations or events
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claustrophobia
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fear of being in a small, enclosed space
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acrophobia
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fear of heights
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agoraphobia
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fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible
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panic attack
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sudden onset of intense panic in which multiple physical symptoms of stress occur, often with feelings that one is dying
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panic disorder
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disorder in which panic attacks occur frequently enough to cause the person difficulty in adjusting to daily life
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panic disorder with agoraphobia
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fear of leaving one’s familiar surrounding because one might have a panic attack in public
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obsessive-compulsive disorder
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disorder in which intruding, recurring thoughts or obsessions create anxiety that is relieved by performing a repetitive, ritualistic behavior or mental act (compulsion)
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acute stress disorder (ASD)
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a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments in which people seem to \”relive\” the event in dreams and flashbacks for as long as 1 month following the event
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posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
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a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems, lasting for more than 1 month
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generalized anxiety disorder
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disorder in which a person has feelings of dread and impending doom along with physical symptoms of stress, which lasts 6 months or more
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magnification
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the tendency to interpret situations as far more dangerous, harmful, or important than they actually are
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all-or-nothing thinking
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the tendency to believe that one’s performance must be perfect or the result will be a total failure
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overgeneralization
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the tendency to interpret a single negative event as a neverending pattern of defeat and failure
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minimization
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the tendency to give little or no importance to one’s successes or positive events and traits
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affect
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in psychology, a term indicating \”emotion\” or \”mood\”
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mood disorders
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disorders in which mood is severely disturbed
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major depression
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severe depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause, or is too severe for current circumstances
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manic
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having the quality of excessive excitement, energy, and elation or irritability
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bipolar disorder
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severe mood swings between major depressive episodes and manic episodes
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seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
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a mood disorder caused by the body’s reaction to low levels of sunlight in the winter months
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anorexia nervosa (anorexia)
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a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15 percent below the ideal body weight or more occurs
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bulimia nervosa (bulimia)
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a condition in which a person develops a cycle of \”binge-ing,\” or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and then using unhealthy methods to avoid weight gain
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schizophrenia
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severe disorder in which the person suffers from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, hallucinations, and inability to distinguish between fantasy and reality
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psychotic
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term applied to a person who is no longer able to perceive what is real and what is fantasy
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delusions
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false beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness
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delusional disorder
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a psychotic disorder in which the primary symptom is one or more delusions
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hallucinations
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false sensory perceptions, such as hearing voices that do not really exist
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flat affect
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a lack of emotional responsiveness
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disorganized
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type of schizophrenia in which behavior is bizarre and childish, and thinking, speech, and motor actions are very diordered
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catatonic
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type of schizophrenia in which the person experiences periods of statue-like immobility mixed with occasional bursts of energetic, frantic movement, and talking
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paranoid
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type of schizophrenia in which the person suffers from delusion sof persecution, grandeur, and jealousy, together with hallucinations
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positive symptoms
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symptoms of schizophrenia that are excesses of behavior or occur in addition to normal behavior; hallucinations, delusions, and distorted thinking
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negative symptoms
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symptoms of schizophrenia that are less than normal behavior or an absence of normal behavior; poor attention, flat affect, and poor speech production
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stress-vulnerability model
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explanation of disorder that assumes a biological sensitivity, or vulnerability, to a certain disorder will result in the development of that disorder under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stress
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personality disorders
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disorders in which a person adopts a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions
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antisocial personality disorder
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disorder in which a person has no morals or conscience and often behaves in an impulsive manner without regard for the consequences of that behavior
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borderline personality disorder
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maladaptive personality pattern in which the person is moody, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others

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