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Psychology 2 Therapies

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Psychotherapy
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Treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.
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Biomedical Therapy
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Prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person’s physiology.
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Eclectic Approach
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An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
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Psycho Analysis
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Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
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Resistance
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In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
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Interpretation
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In psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
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Psychodynamic Therapy
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Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight. Face to Face Therapy
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Insight Therapies
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A variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses
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Client-Centered Therapy
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A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.
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Active Listening
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Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers’ client-centered therapy. (p. 712)
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Carl Rogers
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Developed the widely used humanistic technique he called client-centered therapy, which focused on the person’s conscious self perception. It is a nondirective therapy, the therapist listens, without judging or interpreting, and seeks to refrain from directing the client towards certain insights.
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Unconditional Positive Regard
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A caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance. (pp. 572, 712)
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Sigmund Freud
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Tried to give people self-insight and relief from their disorders by bringing anxiety-laden feelings and thoughts into conscious awareness.
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What do Psychoanalytic and Humanistic Therapies have in common?
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They are both insight therapies and they attempt to improve functioning by increasing clients awareness of motives and defenses.
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Behavioral Therapy
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Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. They are NOT insight therapies, their goal is to apply learning principles to modify problem behaviors. Reinforcing desired behaviors and ignoring or punishing undesirable behaviors.
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Counterconditioning
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Behavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; include exposure therapies and aversive conditioning. (p. 717)
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Exposure Therapies
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Behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid. (p. 717)
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Systematic Desensitization
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A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias. (p. 717)
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Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
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An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking. (p. 718)
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Aversive Conditioning
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A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol). (p. 718)
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Token Economy
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An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
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Cognitive Therapy
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Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
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Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
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A confrontational cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis, that vigorously challenges people’s illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions. (p. 721)
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
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A popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior). (p. 723)
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Group Therapy
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Therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction.
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Family Therapy
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Therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members. (p. 724)
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Aaron Beck
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Created the Cognitive Therapy for Depression which assumes that our thinking influences our feelings, and that the therapists’s role is to change the clients’ self defeating thinking by training them to view themselves in more positive way.
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Regression Toward the Mean
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The tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
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Meta-Analysis
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A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies. (p. 731)
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Evidence-Based Practice
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Clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.
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Therapeutic Alliance
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A bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and client, who work together constructively to overcome the client’s problem. (p. 735)
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Resilience
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The personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma.
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Are some Psychotherapies more effective than others for specific disorders?
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No one type of psychotherapy is generally superior to all others. Therapy is most effective for those with clear-cut, specific problems.
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What would Behavior conditioning be used for?
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For treating phobias and compulsions
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What would Psychodynamic Therapy be used for?
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For treating depression or anxiety
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What would Cognitive and Cognitive Behavioral Therapies be effective in?
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Coping with anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression.
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Alber Ellis
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Advocates the aggressive rational-emotive behavior therapy “No one and nothing is supreme,” “Self gratification” should be encouraged and “Unequivocal love, commitment, service and commitment lead to harmful consequences”
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Psychopharmacology
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The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
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Antipsychotic Drugs
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Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder.
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Anti-anxiety Drugs
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Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation.
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Antidepressants
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Lift people up from their state of depression.
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Electroconvulsive Therapy
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A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
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Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
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The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
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Psychosurgery
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Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
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Lobotomy
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A psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
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1. Describe the basic evolution of psychological treatment and the changes in the way that mental illness has been viewed by those providing psychological treatment.
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-Originally people viewed it as something stuck inside someone and they would cut holes in other people’s heads and restrained, bled or “beat the devil” out of them. -Some viewed these people as animals and would gawk at their mental disorders as if they were broken – Some also have given warm baths and massages and placed people in sunny, serene environments. -They have administered drugs and electric shocks. -Now people view it as more of a mental type situation and realize it can heal and people can overcome with talking to patience about childhood experiences, current feelings and maladaptive thoughts and behaviors.
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2.Identify the basic divisions within psychological treatment citing basic differences between psychotherapy and biomedical therapy.
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-Psychotherapy takes time and has interactions between the therapist and patient seeking to overcome their problem EVENTUALLY -Biomedical Therapy is fast acting and you take a medicine to fix the problem with no patient or therapist efforts.
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3.Discuss the aims and methods of psychoanalysis and explain the critics’ concerns with this form of therapy.
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-Much of its underlying theory cannot be supported by scientific research, analysts interpretations cannot be proven or disproven and psychoanalysis takes considerable time and money.
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4.Identify the basic characteristics of the humanistic therapies as well as the specific goals and techniques of Carl Rogers’ client-centered therapy.
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-Humanistic Perspective has emphasized people’s inherent potential for self-fulfillment. -They want to reduce growth-impeding inner conflicts by providing clients with new insights. -Client-Centered focuses on the person’s conscience self-perception. -Rogers wanted therapists to exhibit acceptance, genuineness, and empathy in order for their clients to feel unconditionally accepted and they are able to express their true feelings. -Truly Hearing Someone
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5.Identify the basic assumptions of behavior therapy, and discuss the classical conditioning techniques of systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning.
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-Behavior Therapy is the healing power of self-awareness -Systematic Desensitization proceeds gradually to eliminate your anxiety -Aversive Conditioning is substituting a negative response for a positive response ex) alc + alc with drug causing nausea alc makes nausea now
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6.Describe therapeutic applications of operant conditioning principles, and explain the critics’ concerns with this behavior modification process.
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-Operant Conditioning uses reinforcers and rewarding. – Critics: How durable is the behavior? Will people become so dependent on rewards that the appropriate behavior will stop when reinforcer stops?
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7.Describe the assumptions and goals of the cognitive therapies and their application to the treatment of depression.
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-Our thinking colors our feelings -Replacing negative thinking with positive thinking Lost job -> Im worthless its hopeless = depression Lost job -> My boss is a jerk I deserve something better = No depression Change people’s thinking by revealing the “absurdity” of their self-defeating ideas ELLIS THOUGHTS
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8.Discuss the rationale and benefits of group therapy, including family therapy.
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-Group therapy saves therapists time and clients money with no less effectiveness, offers social laboratory for exploring social behaviors and developing social skill, enables people to see that others share their problems and provides feedback. -Family Therapy helps family realize that they live and grow in relation to others, especially our families.
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9.Discuss the findings regarding the effectiveness of the psychotherapies, and explain why ineffective therapies are often mistakenly perceived to be of value.
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-They all have very similar symptoms