Psychology 101. Final Exam: Neurotransmitter, IQ, Parkinson Disease

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Chapter Review Check #1 (Chapter two)
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Each type of neurotransmitter has a specific _____, and each type of receptor site has a specific _____.
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Molecular shape; configuration.
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A neuron firing an action potential is most like a person _____.
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Firing a gun.
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A synapse is esentially a(n) _____.
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Gap.
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Symptoms of multiple sclerosis include _____.
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Difficulty with voluntary movement.
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Current estimates suggest we have around _____ neurons in our brain.
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86 billion.
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Which statement is most correct about the complexity of neurological processes in the brain?
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Neurological processes are very complex, with many activities happening at the same time.
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Which of the following axon membrane potentials represents the greatest amount of polarization?
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-70 millivolts.
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The junction between adjoining neurons is called the _____.
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Synapse.
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When the inside of the axon has a greater negative charge than the outside, it is safe to conclude that ______.
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An action potential is not being generated in that part of the axon.
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Once an action potential reaches the end of the axon, how does the information usually get to the next neuron?
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Vesicles at the end of the axon release neurotransmitters which float across the synaptic cleft to the next neuron.
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Georgia’s a disease that is associated with a lack of dopamine-producing neurons in his brain. George most likely has _____.
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Parkinson’s disease.
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Hedda takes a drug that increases the amount of acetylcholine in her brain. Hedda is most likely taking this drug for which condition?
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Alzheimer’s disease.
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Which neurotransmitter is the primary target of drugs, such as Prozac, that are used to treat depression?
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Serotonin.
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Treating a patient with Parkinson’s disease with a drug that increases dopamine activity too greatly could lead to symptoms of _____.
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Schizophrenia.
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Emilio is taking a drug for his Parkinson’s disease. What effect would you expect this drug to have on Emilio’s brain?
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Increase dopamine levels.
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If you have just completed a vigorous physical workout, your central nervous system is most likely to have _____.
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Increased levels of endorphins.
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Those who are prescribed Prozac are presumed to have _____ in their brain.
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Low levels of serotonin.
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Treating a patient with schizophrenia with a drug that decreases dopamine activity too greatly could lead to symptoms of _____.
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Parkinson’s disease.
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The chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain is _____ , and the chief excitatory neurotransmitter is _____.
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GABA; glutamate.
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Dr. Bush specializes in the study of hormones and neurotransmitters. His research would show that ______.
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Some hormones behave like neurotransmitters.
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When you reach out and accidentally touch a hot stove, information is sent through _____ neurons to tell your central nervous system that it is hot.
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Sensory.
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The two main divisions of the nervous system are the ______ and the _____.
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Central nervous system; peripheral nervous system.
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The autonomic nervous system allows us to _____.
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Breathe without having to think about it.
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A component of the autonomic nervous system is ______.
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The sympathetic nervous system.
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When making a drive to the basket in a basketball game, your _____ nervous system sends signals to your muscles to coordinate your movements.
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Somatic.
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Kiesha was driving in her car when a tractor-trailer pulled out in front of her and almost caused an accident. Which branch of Kiesha’s nervous system was most responsible for the functioning of her internal organs during this crises?
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The sympathetic nervous system.
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After cheering widly at an exciting football game your body may begin to relax on the way home. This relaxation reflects activity of the _____ nervous system.
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Parasympathetic.
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The central nervous system includes the ______.
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Brain and spinal cord.
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The branch of the nervous system that includes neurons that run between the brain and the muscles AND between the brain and the internal organs is the _____.
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Peripheral nervous system.
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Motor neurons are to _____ as sensory neurons are to _____.
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Outward; inward.
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The motor cortex is located in the _____ lobe of the cortex.
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Frontal.
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Whereas the hindbrain is the _____ part of the brain, the forebrain is the _____ part of the brain.
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Primitive; intellectual.
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The medulla is responsible for _____.
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Heartbeat and respiration.
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The most convoluted and folded cortex would belong to _____.
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A human.
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Recent research has shown that persons with autism spectrum disorders experience abnormal activity in the ______.
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Amygdala.
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Suppose a person’s brain is examined and found to be smaller and have a larger number of connections between hemispheres than average. This means that the person is more likely to be an _____ than _____.
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Female; male.
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Motor-sensory cortex areas comprise about _____ of the cortex, and association cortex areas comprise about _____ of the cortex.
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25%; 75%
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Suppose your neurosurgeon wants to get a good picture of your brain in action. What technique is she most likely to use?
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PET scan.
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For the case of H.M. in the textbook: ______.
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His memory for events prior to the surgery remained intact.
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Alcohol primarily impairs the functioning of the _____.
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Cerebellum.
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In contrast to the endocrine system, the nervous system _____.
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Is faster acting.
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Hormones in the endocrine system _____.
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Are primarily released by special organs in the body in response to signals from the pituitary gland.
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The two major communication systems within the body are the nervous system and the _____ system.
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Endocrine.
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Which gland plays a role in sexual maturation?
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Pineal gland.
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Which progression represents the correct sequence for secretion of hormones?
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Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, endocrine glands, organs of the body.
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Jonna’s immune system seems to be compromised. Her doctor has determined that the problem lies in her endocrine system. Which part of Jonna’s endocrine system is most likely related to her poor immune system functioning?
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Adrenal cortex.
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The sex hormones called estrogens are produced by the _____ , while the sex hormones called androgens are produced by the ______.
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ovaries; testes.
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In the nercous system information is passed through the body’s ______ , while in the endocrine system information is passed through the body’s _____.
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Neurons; bloodstream.
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In terms of working together, the nervous system and the endocrine system _____.
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Often work together to influence biological activity.
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The structure in the brain that connects the endocrine system and the nervous system is the _____.
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Hypothalamus.
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Chapter Review Check #2 (Chapters 5 & 7)
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When you momentarily forget a friend’s name, the function of memory that has failed is the _____ function.
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Retrieval.
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What is the best example of the use of explicit memory?
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Remembering the name of an old friend.
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Frika is washing dishes and she automatically puts the forks in the side drawer, despite the fact that she moved the forks to another drawer last week. Frika’s error is most likely the result of _____ memory.
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Implicit.
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Iconic memory is to _____ as echoic memory is to_____.
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Visual sensory memory; auditory sensory memory.
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Mila received a new DVD player that she is trying to connect to the back of her television by feel alone. The first stage of memorizing how to make the connection would be through _____.
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Haptic sensory memory.
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Which statement is TRUE regarding chunking?
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Chunking can increase the efficiency of short-term memory, but as the size of the chunks increases, the number of chunks that can be stored effectively will decrease.
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Imagine that you are a subject in a study in which you are asked to remember a sequence of 20 letters of the alphabet dictated to you at the rate of one letter every two seconds. Immediately after the dictation, you are asked to recall the original sequence of letters. Most likely the researcher is studying what aspect of memory?
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Capacity of short-term memory.
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Suppose you prepare for your test on memory by relating the information to your grandfather’s memory problems due to Alzheimer’s disease. In this case, you are using _____ rehearsal.
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Elaborative.
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The working memory model is to _____ processing as the three-stage model is to _____ processing.
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Parallel; serial.
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When Alzheimer’s patients are tested on a single task matched to their ability (such as recalling a list of numbers), they tend to perform _____.
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The same as healthy control subjects.
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Research on the impact of ringing cell phones on academic performance indicates that _____.
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Attention and memory are both affected.
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Retrograde amnesia is to _____ as anterograde amnesia is to ____.
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Past; future.
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Recall the case of H.M. as described in your text. With his hippocampus removed, H.M. was _____.
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Able to learn new procedural memories, but unable to recall how the memories were learned.
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Recall is to ____ as recognition is to _____.
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Essay question; multiple-choice question.
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Which method is LEAST likely to improve your memory?
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Using maintenance rehearsal.
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Decay theory would have the hardest time dealing with any research finding suggesting that _____.
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Memories can last a very long time, even if they have not been accessed periodically.
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Roberto has not thought of his third-grade teacher in over 40 years. According to decay theory, the memory trace for his teacher should be _____.
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Unavailable.
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One of the functions of the central executive component of memory is to _____.
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Suppress interfering memory traces.
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Dr. Rogers meets one of his students at a local shopping mall and he cannot recall her name. However, when he sees her in class the next Monday morning, he immediately recalls that her name is Junita. Which theory of forgetting best explains Dr. Roger’s memory lapse?
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Cue-dependent theory.
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How did Loftus interpret false memories?
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We accept subsequent misinformation as being correct, and this information becomes part of our memory for the original event.
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Activity in the _____ is especially likely to occur when participants are deeply processing material.
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Left frontal lobe.
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Procedural memory is linked to the _____.
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Striatum.
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Jameel has a desire to learn as much about psychology as he can. Psychologists would call this desire a _____.
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Motive.
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Wanting to get a college education is an example of _____.
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Motive.
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The drive theory of motivation states that drives are _____.
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Negative states that we are motivated to reduce.
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Dr. Williams is a psychologist who believes that motivation is produced when we feel an uncomfortable internal state that pushes us to find a way to feel better. Dr. Williams’ belief is most compatible with which theory of motivation?
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Drive-reduction theory.
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Maintaining bodily processes at a state of equilibrium is known as achieving _____.
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Homeostasis.
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Guillermo feels best when he is sitting in a Japanese garden feeding the koi in the ponds. Knowing what you know about arousal and motivation, at what level of arousal will Guillermo most likely perform his best?
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A level of arousal that is below average.
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Doing a job well because you get to experience a sense of pride in your accomplishments is a good example of _____ motivation.
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Intrinsic.
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Abraham Maslow believed that after satisfying our basic physiological and security needs, we can begin to work on our _____ needs.
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Belonging.
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Contrary to Maslow’s beliefs about motivation, _____.
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People often seek to fulfill “higher” needs while depriving themselves of “lower” needs.
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Whose behavior contradicts Maslow’s hierarchy?
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Merrit, who skips lunch for a week so he can afford to take his partner to a concert.
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Which substance tends to be associated with feeling hungry when it is at a high level in our body?
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Ghrelin.
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When you feel full after eating a big meal, it is likely that your stomach _____.
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Has sent information to your brain about the calories in the food you have eaten.
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A liver that is not working properly is most likely to have what effect?
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Body levels of glucose and glycogen will not be appropriately monitored.
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Ghrelin is to _____ as leptin is to _____.
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Stomach; fat cells.
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Neuropeptide Y exerts his strongest effect _____.
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Outside of the lateral hypothalamus.
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A rat whose lateral hypothalamus was destroyed would be expected to _____.
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Starve to death.
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One of the reasons that diets often do not work is that dieting _____.
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Leads to hunger and decreases the rate at which our bodies burn energy.
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Research on dieters who break their diets suggests that _____.
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The idea of restraint in food intake goes out the door once they have already indulged.
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What is a common characteristic of a person with bulimia?
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Average to slightly above average weight.
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Research suggests that both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa may result from _____.
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A complex mix of biological, psychological, and cultural factors.
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What percent of the population seeking professional treatment for weight control may have binge-eating disorder?
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30%.
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The collection of personality traits that your society typically associates with either males or females is called _____.
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Gender.
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In both men and women, sexual desire is influenced by _____.
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Testosterone.
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Millennials report _____.
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Both the highest and lowest levels of masturbation compared to other generations.
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Approximately _____ of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth report having experienced verbal abuse.
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80%.
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Even though the James- Lange theory of emotion was criticized by Walter Cannon many years ago, more recent research suggests that _____.
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Some emotions do indeed involve different bodily reactions.
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If you make yourself smile while reading your psychology textbook, research on the facial feedback hypothesis predicts that you will probably _____.
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Have more positive feelings about psychology.
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Cross-cultural research on facial expressions has shown that _____.
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Just as slightly different dialects occur within the same language, so slightly different facial expressions occur for the same emotions across different cultures.
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Chapter Review Check #3 (Chapters 4 & 6)
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If you were deprived of sleep for a couple of nights, you would most likely _____.
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Experience microsleeps until you could get a longer night’s sleep.
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Michelle has three young children and sleeps an average of five hours a night. Which of the following is Michelle most likely to experience?
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Have difficulties succeeding in school and work.
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If a male and female were raised with different expectations and lifestyles with regard to sleeping patterns, it would be expected that _____.
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They would each have a different need for sleep.
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The reason why you might get tired and sleepy as the sun goes down is because your body is releasing _____ into your bloodstream.
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Melatonin.
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Which statement is true regarding our sleep patterns?
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REM sleep consists of one stage, and non-REM sleep consists of four stages.
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Japhet is lying in bed. He is relaxed, but he is not yet asleep. Japhet’s brain is most likely producing _____.
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Alpha waves.
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If Lebron, who is asleep and dreaming, and Kobe, who is awake, were both given brain scans, what would you expect their scans to look like?
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Both scans would be similar with a large amount of activity.
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Which statement is TRUE regarding sleep stages?
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Dreaming can occur in all stages.
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Freud would be most likely to agree with which statement?
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Dreams are important clues to the content of our unconsciousness.
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Bailey studies all day on Sunday for her psychology final on Monday. When she wakes up Monday morning, she reports many intense and vivid dreams. Bailey’s experience most supports which theory on dreaming?
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Memory theory.
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Activation-synthesis theorists propose that dreams _____.
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Can provide us with some insight into ourselves.
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What type of therapy is indicated for people with insomnia?
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Cognitive-behavioral.
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A loss of neurons responsible for producing _____ may be the cause of narcolepsy.
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Hypocretin.
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Night terrors are different from nightmares in that _____.
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Nightmares typically occur during REM sleep and night terrors typically occur during deep sleep.
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Which statement is TRUE regarding quality of sleep and ethnicity?
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African Americans report lower sleep quality than European Americans.
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While under hypnosis, a person is _____.
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Not asleep.
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Dr. Chapman believes that hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness but rather a condition in which people behave as they believe a hypnotized person would. Dr. Chapman endorses the _____ theory of hypnosis.
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Response set.
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The three most widely used psychoactive drugs in U.S. society are _____.
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Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine.
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Nicotine is a(n) ______ whereas marijuana is a(n) _____.
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Stimulant; hallucinogen.
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THC binds to a neurotransmitter called _____.
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Anandamide.
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Compared to using street drugs, non-medical use of prescription drugs is _____.
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Equally risky.
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Which statement is TRUE regarding substance dependence?
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Withdrawal symptoms may involve both physical and behavioral effects.
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Alcohol is to _____ as caffeine is to _____.
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Depressant; stimulant.
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Rohypnol (Roofies) has been used as a date rape drug because of its _____ effects.
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Depressant.
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Which type of drug has a medical use and therefore is prescribed by doctors?
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Oxycodone.
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The orienting reflex is to _____ , as habituation is to _____.
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Novel experience; repeated experience.
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Recent research on the brain and habituation suggests habituation is somewhat primitive in nature. This research has found that which part of the brain is involved in certain instances of habituation?
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Cerebellum.
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Your new neighbor is an incredibly good cook, a skill you plan to exploit whenever possible. It becomes apparent, however, that your neighbor particularly enjoys preparing fish. You eventually get used to the odor and barely notice it but, when you return home after a two-week vacation, you very much notice the odor again. This illustrates _____.
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Dishabituation.
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In Pavlov’s original studies, salivation to meat was a(n) _____ and salivation to a buzzer was a(n) _____.
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unconditioned response; condition response.
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Joseph goes out with his friends for pizza. Unbeknownst to him, he is coming down with a stomach virus. When the nausea associated with the virus kicks in, he vomits. Now, Joseph cannot even look at a pizza without feeling nauseous. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is _____.
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The pizza.
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Television ads that use beautiful images to sell products are a good example of _____.
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Classical conditioning.
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Little Albert learned to associate a _____.
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White rat with a loud noise.
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Jennifer normally experiences a flood of romantic feelings whenever she smells a particular cologne because it reminds her of her boyfriend. Thankfully, when her younger brother wears the same cologne, she does not experience the same feelings. This is an example of _____.
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Stimulus discrimination.
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When Antabuse is used to treat alcoholism through aversion therapy, the neutral stimulus in this classical conditioning example is _____.
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Alcohol.
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Ashley grew up fearing clowns because of an incident early in her life. Although it took several years before the fear disappeared completely, she can now enjoy the entertainment that clowns offer. Her fear of clowns has undergone _____.
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Extinction.
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Tad’s ex-girlfriend used to wear Chanel perfume. Since their bitter break-up, Tad has fou7nd that he feels angry whenever he smells Chanel No. 5. What is the best way for Tad to get to the point where smelling Chanel No. 5 will no longer make him feel angry?
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He should frequently go to the local perfume counter and smell Chanel No. 5.
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While on vacation, Juana eats bologna and then suffers an attack of car sickness. Now, when Juana even thinks of bologna, he feels sick to her stomach. How can Juana get to the point where she can once again eat bologna without feeling sick?
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She should resume eating bologna in situations where she is not likely to get sick.
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Don is delighted when he successfully conditions his roommate, Lloyd, to cringe at the sound of the squeaky drawer by pairing the squeak with a ping-pong ball to his roommate’s head. He decides to continue his experiment with classical conditioning and creates another squeaky noise by dragging chair legs across the floor. At first Lloyd cringes at the new squeak, but with the continued “trials” in which the drawer squeak is paired with a ping-pong ball to the head but the chair leg squeak is not, Lloyd stops cringing to the chair leg squeak, illustrating _____.
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Discrimination.
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Thorndike concluded that his cats were learning because _____.
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Across repeated placements in a box, it took them a shorter amount of time to get out of the box.
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Negative reinforcement leads to _____.
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An increase in behavior.
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Joseph tells his buddies at work a joke that makes fun of women. To his surprise, his friends ignore him for several days. As a result, Joseph decides never again to tell a joke like that at work. Joseph’s experience is an example of what type of consequence?
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Negative punishment.
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Compared to classical conditioning, operant conditioning is more likely to result in _____.
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A variety of initial responses.
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Thorndike is to _____ as Skinner is to _____.
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The law of effect; operant conditioning.
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When an extinction burst occurs, it suggests that the organism _____.
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Has learned to expect reinforcement.
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Chang gets paid $50 bonus for every 100 pairs of shoes that he sells. Chang is being reinforced on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
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Fixed ratio.
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If a teacher wants to change a pattern of student studying that typically increases on the days prior to a test and drops to almost no studying at all in the days following a test, she should try a variable interval schedule such as a system that uses _____.
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Random, unannounced tests.
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Slot machines pay out according to a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
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Variable ratio.
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Xiao-ping has learned that if she whines to her mom, she will get candy. Based on this experience, Xiao-ping starts whining to her dad, too, in hopes of getting candy. Xiao-ping is illustrating _____.
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Generalization.
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Rick wants his daughter to spend more time studying. Which strategy is most likely to work for Rick?
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He should reward his daughter when she does study.
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Lloyd’s roommate, Don, classically conditioned Lloyd to cringe whenever Don opened a squeaky drawer by pairing a squeak with a ping-pong ball to Lloyd’s head. Lloyd wants to return the favor, so when Don is out, Lloyd discretely wires an electrode to the drawer handle so Don will be shocked when he touches it. Lloyd is using _____.
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Positive punishment.
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Chapter Review Check #4 (Chapters 8 &11)
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When Alfred Binet developed a test of intelligence in France, the test was specifically designed to _____.
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Identify school children who would not likely do well in traditional schools.
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The IQ formula was popularized by _____.
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Lewis Terman.
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If a four-year-old child were shown to have a mental age of four when taking the Stanford-Binet test, the child’s IQ would be _____.
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100 (Mental age divided by Real age multiplied by 100).
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Martin is 18 years old, but he scored like an average 15 year old on the Stanford-Binet intelligence test. Martin’s IQ would be approximately ______.
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83 (Mental age divided by Real age multiplied by 100).
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Dr. Tolman is a school psychologist who is working on a project to measure the intelligence of the children enrolled in a local preschool class. Which IQ test would be appropriate for Dr. Tolman’s project?
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WPPSI-III.
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Robert Sternberg argues that some of Howard Gardner’s intelligences are ______.
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Actually talents that some people possess.
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Lamar is in the water well drilling business in Oklahoma, and he has a talent for knowing where to find water. According to Robert Sternberg, Lamar is high in _____ intelligence.
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Practical.
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According to Daniel Goleman, a person with a high level of intellectual abilities may still struggle in an intellectual pursuit if _____ intelligence is lacking.
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Emotional.
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The dominant perspective in the nature-nurture debate today is called _____.
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Interactionism.
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Twin studies show that intelligence _____.
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Stems both from genes and from the environment.
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The fact that gender differences in intellectual abilities vary by culture, age, and race suggests that _____.
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The observed gender differences may be due to the environment.
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Who viewed intelligence as the capacity to find and maintain a purpose, adopt a strategy to reach that purpose, and evaluate the strategy so it can be adjusted as necessary?
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Binet.
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What is the upper age limit for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV)?
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90 years old.
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Based on your reading, which individual will have the highest level of intelligence?
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There is no way to predict individual IQ from group averages.
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Those who believe that intelligence is primarily due to genetics would have the most difficulty explaining why _____.
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Black children placed in white families have above average IQs.
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Who is most associated with the ideas of fluid and crystallized intelligence?
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Cattell.
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A five-year-old child taking the Stanford-Binet test and scoring a mental age of four would have an IQ of _____.
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80 (Mental age divided by Real age multiplied by 100).
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When Alfred Binet administered his intelligence test in France, he found that _____.
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Older children tended to answer more questions correctly than younger children.
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Genetic studies suggest that _____.
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A group of genes accounts for about 40% of the variation in crystallized intelligence.
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According to Freud, the _____ is protected by defense mechanisms.
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Ego.
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In psychoanalytic theory, preciousness is to ____ awareness, as unconscious is to _____ awareness
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Potential; lack of
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A sexually promiscuous teenage girl may not realize that her motivations stem from conflicting emotions surrounding growing up without a father. Freud would most likely say that her motivations are arising from her _____.
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Unconscious.
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According to Freud, which part of a person’s personality is the largest?
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Unconscious.
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Which sequence correctly represents the developmental order for the three components of personality according to Freud?
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Id, ego, superego.
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Kelly was sexually abused as a child but has no memory of the event. According to Freud, Kelly’s memory of the abuse probably resides in her _____.
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Unconscious.
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The ego operates according to _____.
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The reality principle.
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Rosalinda wants a new Bratz doll, but she has no money. The thought of stealing the doll crosses Rosalinda’s mind, but she decides not to steal because stealing is wrong. According to Freud, Rosalinda’s decision not to steal is most influenced by the _____.
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Superego.
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A freudian slip is ____.
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An unconscious id impulse that is expressed before the ego can control it.
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A difference between a Freudian slip and a defense mechanism is that ____.
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Defense mechanisms are intentionally implemented by the ego.
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The Oedipal complex and the Electra complex occur in the ____ stage of psychosexual development.
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Phallic.
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Anal-retentiveness is an example of a _____.
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Fixation.
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What do Karen Horney, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler all have in common?
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They all disagreed with Freud’s emphasis on instinctual sexual drives.
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For Carl Jung, the persona and shadow are _____.
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Elements of ourselves that we either show or hide from the world.
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Carl Jung is to ____ , as Karen Horney is to _____.
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Archetypes; basic anxiety.
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Sofia is giving a lecture in which she discusses Freud’s sources of information for his theory of personality. She is most likely to argue that Freud’s _____.
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Case studies reflected a biased sample of individuals.
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Why is Freud’s theory of personality difficult to disprove?
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The major concepts of Freud’s theory are based on the unconscious and are therefore difficult to measure.
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Which theorist is associated with the idea of the collective unconscious?
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Jung.
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Which statement would be most agreeable to a trait theorist?
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Personality characteristics tend to remain relatively stable as we age.
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Although Scott is not generally a sociable person, he can be, when he is with people that he knows quite well. Gordon Allport would consider Scott’s sociability to be a _____.
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Secondary trait.
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Tom and Maria are both outgoing in varying degrees. Tom can easily strike up a conversation with anyone. Maria is more likely to be outgoing with her friends. According to Cattell, if everyone has some degree of outgoingness in them like Tom and Maria, this would be considered a _____ trait.
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Source.
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Which of the following describes the two personality factors originally developed by Hans Eysenck?
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Where a person’s energy is focused and how much control is exerted over emotions.
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Hans is a moody, nervous, and irritable person. Eysenck would label Hans as _____.
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High in neuroticism.
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Which of the following is one of the core traits in the five factor trait theory?
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Extraversion.
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Katrina was adopted as a newborn and has never had any contact with her biological parents. It would be expected that her personality is most similar to the personalities of her _____.
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Biological parents.
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Cross-cultural studies on personality traits have shown that _____.
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In spite of language and cultural differences, some personality traits appear to be universal.
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Constantino is a younger teenager in high school. Which personality change is Constantino most likely to undergo over the next ten years?
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He will become more agreeable and emotionally stable.
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Which of the following is true of trait theory?
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It does not adequately explain why we behave in a certain way.
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As they age, people tend to become _____.
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More emotionally stable.
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Albert Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism is part of which theory of personality?
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Social cognitive theory.
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Stella believes that the events of her life are determined largely by a supreme being. Rotter would say that Stella has a(n) _____.
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External locus of control.
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Chapter Review Check #5 (chapters 9 & 10)
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What is the commonly accepted view of current psychologists regarding the nature-nurture controversy?
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The interaction of nature and nurture determines what we become.
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A developing organism tat has become a blastocyst is in the _____ prenatal stage.
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Germinal.
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All the major organs and biological systems (such as the cardiovascular system, digestive system, and skeletal system) begin forming in the _____ period.
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Embryonic.
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The greatest vulnerability to teratogens occurs in the _____ stage.
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Embryonic.
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Ellease’s unborn child just implanted itself in the uterine lining. Ellease’s unborn child is in the _____ stage of prenatal development.
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Germinal.
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Allison was born with an extra 21st chromosome, which makes her more susceptible to heart defects and intellectual disability. Allison has _____.
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Down syndrome.
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The fact that the young brain prunes and and discards neural connections that are not used suggests that _____.
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The importance of providing stimulating environments for children.
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Bonnie is a one-year-old infant who can handle items with her hands, an ability called _____.
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Prehension.
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What advice would you give to the mother of a premature infant regarding physical touch stimulation of her baby?
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Routine touching and caressing will help facilitate weight gain.
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Assimilation is to _____ as accommodation is to _____.
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Use of existing schema; creation of new schema.
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Your fourteen-year-old niece would be expected to differ from your nine-year-old nephew in the ability to engage in _____ thinking.
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Abstract.
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Vygotsky is to _____ as Piaget is to _____.
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England; USA
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Which statement is TRUE with regard to the developmental theories of Piaget and Vygotsky?
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Piaget believed that cognitive development is most influenced by biological forces, whereas Vygotsky believed that social interactions are the primary influence on cognitive development.
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Kyle takes some beers from a couple of cases his father keeps in the garage refrigerator. Kyle does this every once in a while so he can go drinking in the woods with friends and keep in good standing with them. Kyle is most likely in Kohlberg’s _____ stage of moral reasoning.
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Conventional.
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Carol Gilligan believes that _____.
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Kohlberg’s model is biased against the way that females think about moral issues.
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Current research on private speech suggests that _____.
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It should be encouraged when children are problem solving.
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Kathy remains close to her father at all times, rarely exploring new environments or objects. She shows extreme distress if her father leaves and appears to be angry at him when he returns. Ainsworth would characterize Kathy’s attachment as _____.
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Resistant.
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Melissa is overprotective of her two-year-old son, Lance. She is so fearful that he will harm himself that she does everything for him and does not allow him to try and master simple tasks such as putting his toys away. It is likely that Lance may have difficulty resolving Erikson’s crisis of _____.
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Autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
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Haruki is a young male going through puberty. Compared to females his age, he is most likely going through puberty _____ them.
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Two years after.
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Which physical change is not typical for people between 40 and 70 years of age?
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An increase in metabolism.
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Your 75-year-old grandparents are likely to have experienced many physical changes associated with aging. If they are like most others their age, they _____.
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Would report that they are in good health.
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Juan believes that he is unique or somehow destined for greatness. Juan is demonstrating _____.
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A personal fable.
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If a mid-life crisis were to be experienced, it would most likely occur during Erikson’s stage of _____.
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Generativity.
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Which of the following couples is most likely to get a divorce?
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Ben and Marlene, who have parents who are divorced.
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What is Ben, a high school senior, most likely to value when looking for a dating partner?
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Attractiveness of the partner.
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Bereavement is to _____ as grief is to _____.
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The experience of losing a loved one; the emotional reaction to the loss.
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Which of the following is an attitude?
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Liking spinach souffle and parsnips.
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Operant conditioning influences the formation of attitudes through the _____.
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Consequences we receive for our own behaviors.
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Cognitive dissonance theory most directly explains _____.
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Attitude change as a result of internal motivation.
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When the Affordable Care Act was first implemented, politicians and media outlets opposed to it referred to it as “Obamacare” rather than the Affordable Care Act. In essence, they were trying to use _____ to persuade individuals it was a bad idea.
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The peripheral route.
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In which venue would an attractive actor be BEST able to persuade people.
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On a television ad.
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A trait attribution is to _____ , as a situational attribution is to _____.
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Personality; environment.
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We commit the fundamental attribution error when _____.
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We discount situational explanations for behavior and rely more on trait explanations.
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Cody is known to be judgmental and tends to harshly describe others as lazy or stupid when they require assistance. Cody is demonstrating _____.
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Self-serving bias.
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A prejudice differs from a stereotype in that it includes _____.
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A negative emotional reaction.
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Based on what you know about prejudices, stereotypes, and discrimination, which sequence best represents how three processes often develop?
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Stereotypes, prejudices, discrimination.
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Jane Elliot’s “brown eye/blue eye” demonstration with her third grade class in the 1970s showed _____.
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How easy it is to create prejudice in children.
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Most people feel an in-group bias, which means that they _____.
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View members of their own group more favorably than members of other groups.
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Under which situation would you expect prejudice against minority members to be at its worst?
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When unemployment is high.
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In a jigsaw classroom, students _____.
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Work together on projects on a race of people other than their own.
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Jenna goes away to college and meets the man of her dreams in the dorm room right across the hall from her. Which factor explains Jenna’s attraction to this man?
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Proximity.
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In general, we like our friends and romantic partners to be _____.
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About the same level of attractiveness as we are.
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Norms are _____.
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Expectations that guide the behavior of group members.
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As the _____ of a group increases, so does _____ within the group.
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Cohesiveness; conformity.
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Studies on the amount of conformity pressure created when a small group of people is doing the same thing show that conformity pressure is ____.
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Increased with each additional person, but only up to a point, then it levels off.
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Zimbardo’s prison study illustrates that ______.
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Playing a role can cause a person to lose sight of internal values.
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Carlene dislikes working in groups because in her opinion, there is always going to be someone who is content to sit back and let others do the work. Specifically she dislikes _____.
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Social loafing.
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If you were a participant in Stanley Milgram’s studies on obedience, you would have _____.
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Played the role of a “teacher” and delivered electric shocks to a “learner”
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The cognitive neoassociation theory of aggression proposes that guns _____.
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Can influence aggressive thoughts because of their association with fear and anger in our memories.
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The concept of diffusion of responsibility predicts that _____.
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As the number of bystanders witnessing an emergency increases, the likelihood that any one of the bystanders will help the victim decreases.
question

Chapter Review Check #6 (Chapters 13 &14)
answer

question

Mental health disorders are the leading cause of disability in the U.S. for people between _____ years of age.
answer

15 and 44.
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Which criteria is most problematic for psychologists when distinguishing normal from abnormal behavior?
answer

Violation of social norms.
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The fact that homosexuality was once on the American Psychiatric Association list of psychological disorders and now is not on the list specifically illustrates the variability of the ______ criterion for distinguishing between normal and abnormal behavior.
answer

Violation of social norms.
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Based on the statistical frequency of mental illness, it is likely that _____ of all adults in the U.S. will suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder sometime in their life.
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More than half.
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Dr. Skinner is a behavioral psychologist. How would she view an anxiety disorder?
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As a result of learning.
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The DSM criteria require that symptoms _____.
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Interfere with an individual’s functioning.
question

Lecretia has lately been experiencing distressing symptoms including elevated heart rate, muscle tension, a sense of dread, restlessness, and a desire to flee from certain situations. Her symptoms are most consistent with a(n) _____.
answer

Anxiety disorder.
question

Obsessions are _____, while compulsions are ______.
answer

Thoughts; behaviors.

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