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Psychology 101 – Exam 3 practice questions

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associative learning
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Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates
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conditioned stimulus
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Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n)
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unconditioned response
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Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a
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conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
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Conditioning seldom occurs when a ________ comes after a(n) _____
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spontaneous reconvery
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Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin’s new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates
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generalization
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A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates
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observable behavior
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John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of
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classical conditioning
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If you have a “frightening experience” immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates
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unconditioned stimulus
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Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n)
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conditioned response
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You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a
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discrimination
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After being bitten by his neighbor’s dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of
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conditioned response
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The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the
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Skinner’s experiments on reinforcement
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The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by
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shaping
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In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as
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conditioned
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If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.
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fixed-ratio
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Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement
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decreases; increases
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Punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement ________ the rate of operant responding.
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operant conditioning
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If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates
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negative reinforcement
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Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car’s irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of
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conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer
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A word of praise is to a soothing back rub as ________ is to ________
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partial reinforcement
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A pigeon receives food for pecking a key, but only rarely and on unpredictable occasions. This best illustrates
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variable-ratio
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For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule
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secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics
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Female breasts are to ________ as male testes are to ________.
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preconventional
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Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ________ morality
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affectively laden intuitions
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The sexual abuse of a very young child is so emotionally repulsive to most people that they immediately recognize it as shamefully immoral. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect
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Erikson’s psychosocial development theory
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The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by
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like their parents
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Research on teen social relationships indicates that most adolescents
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cognitive
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An organism’s ability to mentally anticipate that a US will follow a CS is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) ________ perspective.
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novel tastes
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Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with
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observational learning
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If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. According to many researchers, this best illustrates
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mirror neurons
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An empathic husband who sees his wife in pain will exhibit some of the same brain activity she is showing. According to many researchers, this best illustrates the functioning of
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modeling
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Children often imitate behaviors seen on television. This best illustrates the impact of
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biological predispositions
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If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by
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classical conditioning
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Research participants formed more gut-level liking for PokÉmon characters associated with positive rather than negative images. This best illustrates the impact of
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intrinsic motivation
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Caroline loves to read and enjoys looking up the meanings of words she does not know. In school, her teacher promises a gold star to students each time they learn a new word. The teacher’s behavior is most likely to undermine
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cognitive processes
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Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. This provides evidence for the role of ________ in operant behavior
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Albert Bandura
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Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children’s behavior?
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5; 2
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The word “chimps” contains ________ phoneme(s) and ________ morpheme(s)
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syntax
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In the English language, adjectives are typically placed before nouns as in “green car.” This illustrates an English language rule of
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babbling
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Vocal sounds that are not included in one’s native language first begin to disappear from usage during the ________ stage of language development
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a critical period
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The older a person is when moving to a new country, the harder it is to learn the language. This best illustrates the importance of ________ for learning language.
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aphasia
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As a result of an automobile accident, Jenny suffered damage to her cerebral cortex in Broca’s area. Jenny is most likely to experience
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language on thinking
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During a lecture, your professor says, “A child learns language as he interacts with caregivers.” This generic use of the pronoun he is more likely to trigger images of males than of females. This best illustrates the impact of
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process; positive
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Introductory psychology students facing a midterm exam one week later spent five minutes each day visualizing themselves reading their assigned chapters, going over their notes, and eliminating study distractions. This ________ simulation had a ________ effect on their exam scores
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phoneme
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Native German speakers who pronounce the English word “this” as “dis” are demonstrating their difficulty with an English
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semantics
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When you add s to the word apple you are referring to more than one apple. This illustrates an English language rule of
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24
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The two-word stage of language development typically begins at the age of ________ months
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Wernicke’s Area
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In which of the following parts of the brain would a lesion most likely result in aphasia?
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neural networks
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Brain scans reveal that different ________ are activated when we process verbs rather than nouns.
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new
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Rico, the border collie, can fetch 200 items by name. If asked to retrieve a toy with a name he has never heard before, Rico will fetch a toy that is
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linguistic determinism
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Using different words for two very similar objects enables people to recognize conceptual distinctions between the objects. This best illustrates
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genome
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An organism’s complete set of genetic instructions is called the
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more similar in their risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and more similar in risk of being emotionally unstable.
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Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are
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personality traits
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Adoptive parents are LEAST likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children
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temperament
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Intense and reactive infants become unusually anxious and aroused when facing new or strange situations. This best illustrates the importance of
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nature-nurture interactions
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In emphasizing that heredity’s effects on behavior depend on a person’s home environment, psychologists are highlighting the importance of
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mutations
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What is a major source of genetic diversity?
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natural selection
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The prevalence of genetically predisposed traits that have a reproductive advantage is best explained in terms of
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an evolutionary perspective
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It has been suggested that older men in all cultures tend to marry women younger than themselves because men are genetically predisposed to seek female features associated with youthful fertility. This suggestion best illustrates
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behavior geneticists
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Studies of the relative impact of nature and nurture on human differences in aggressiveness best illustrate the research efforts of
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DNA
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Chromosomes are composed of
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prenatal environments
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Identical twins who have separate placentas are somewhat less similar than identical twins who share a placenta. This best illustrates the influence of ________ on development.
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attitudes
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Adopted children are especially likely to have similar ________ if raised in the same home.
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molecular geneticists
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Identifying some of the specific genes that contribute to alcohol dependence would be of most direct interest to
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genes
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Heritability refers to the extent to which trait variations among individuals are attributable to their differing
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an epigenetic effect
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If chronic child abuse alters a victim’s gene expression in such a fashion as to facilitate depression and suicide, this would be said to illustrate
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genetic predispositions
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Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to
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developmental
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Dr. Matsuko’s major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a(n) ________ psychologist.
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embryo
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When a placenta is first developed, it transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to
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placenta
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Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the
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zygotic
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Genetically identical twins first begin their separate paths of prenatal development during ________ development.
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mental abilities
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Infants’ tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their
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continuity and stages
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Ross believes that personality development is a matter of sudden qualitative changes at various turning points in the life span. His viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of
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continuity and stages
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Mark thinks that language development over the life span requires a slow but steady shaping process. His belief is most directly relevant to the issue of
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adulthood
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Human personality shows the greatest stability during
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teratogens
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Taking certain drugs during pregnancy is likely to expose unborn children to
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voices
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By a week after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers’ and strangers’
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Piaget’s cognitive development theory
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The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by
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concept of conservation
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Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a
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a theory of mind
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A child’s realization that others may have beliefs that the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of
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a critical period
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The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as
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authoritarian
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“I don’t care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!” This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style
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acommodation
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After Nadia learned that penguins can’t fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of
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sense of object permanence
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During Piaget’s sensorimotor stage, children acquire a
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autism
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Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others’ emotional states is most characteristic of
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insecure attachment
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Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of
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more likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence.
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Compared with the children of authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative parents are
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preventing her from functioning effectively
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Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is
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stimulant; ADHD
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Although Adderall is a ________ drug, it is commonly used in the treatment of ________
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the medical model
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At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These were replaced with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts were made to diagnose and cure those with psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of
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DSM-IV-TR
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A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is known as the
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biased power of diagnostic labels
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After George learned that Mrs. Min suffered from schizophrenia, he mistakenly concluded that her tendencies to laugh easily and smile frequently were symptoms of her disorder. This best illustrates the
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dysfunctional
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Ongoing patterns of behavior that interfere with normal day-to-day life are best characterized as
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ADHD
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Brian often interrupts his teacher while she is speaking and frequently forgets to complete his homework assignments. He also has difficulty taking turns in playground games with classmates. Brian most clearly exhibits symptoms of
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a biopsychosocial approach
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An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by
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biased power of diagnostic labels
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After participants in one study were informed that a videotaped interviewee was a psychiatric patient, they characterized the person with phrases such as “a passive, dependent type” and “frightened of his own aggressive impulses.” This study best illustrated the
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20
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Symptoms of schizophrenia begin to appear at a median age of about
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generalized anxiety disorder
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Lenore is unexplainably and continually tense and is plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from
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a specific phobia
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An immediate and irrational anxiety response to the mere sight of blood is indicative of
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an obsession
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Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of
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PTSD
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Years after he barely survived a terrorist attack that killed his wife and two children, Mr. Puskari suffers recurring flashbacks and frequent nightmares of the event that render him incapable of holding a steady job. Mr. Puskari is most clearly showing signs of
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learning
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Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when approaching any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear results from a traumatic boat accident she experienced as a child. The therapist’s suggestion reflects a ________ perspective.
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depression
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generalized anxiety disorder is often accompanied by
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panic disorder
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Symptoms that may be misperceived as a heart attack are most characteristic of
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a phobia
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Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or expressway overpasses that he avoids them by taking an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from
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OCD
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Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress intrusive thoughts that she might have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of
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learning
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A therapist suggests that Mr. Broshi continues to bite his fingernails because this behavior often reduced his feelings of anxiety in the past. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
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major depressive disorder
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Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from
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inhibits; inhibits
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The experience of depression ________ risk taking and ________ aggression.
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bipolar disorder
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Between 1994 and 2003, there was a 40-fold increase in the number of people 19 and under diagnosed each year with
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a manic episode
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An overabundance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is most likely to be associated with
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“I’m academically incompetent and always will be.”
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Inanna suffers from chronic depression. According to the social-cognitive perspective, how is she most likely to respond when told that she performed very poorly on a test she took the previous day?
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two weeks
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Major depressive disorder is said to occur when signs of depression last at least
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mania
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Mr. Hoffman has always been cautious with his money, but over the past two weeks he has developed grandiose plans to bet his entire life savings on a single horse race. With unrestrained exuberance he has also been giving everybody he sees unsolicited advice on how to make millions in the stock market. Mr. Hoffman’s behavior is most indicative of
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alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism
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Bipolar disorder is most likely to be characterized by
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NSSI
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Which of the following has been shown to be a risk factor for future suicide attempts?
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social cognitive perspective
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Amanda’s therapist suggests that her depression results from mistakenly blaming herself rather than a slumping economy for her recent job loss. Her therapist’s suggestion best illustrates a
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delusions
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Mr. James believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his life savings. Mr. James is most clearly suffering from
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social withdrawal
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Which of the following best illustrates a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
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periods of immobility or excess, purposeless movement
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Catatonia is characterized by
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hallucinations
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Therapeutic drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to reduce
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viral infections
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The relationship between the season of the year in which people are born and their subsequent risk of schizophrenia best highlights the role of ________ in this disorder
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schizophrenia
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Mrs. Higgins believes that aliens from another planet have removed her stomach and are watching her to see how long it takes her to grow another one. Mrs. Higgins is most likely suffering from
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hallucinations
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Michael complains that threatening voices are constantly telling him that he is so evil he should drown himself. Michael is experiencing
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rapidly in response to a stressful life situation
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The chances for recovery from schizophrenia are considered to be greatest when the disorder develops
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paranoia
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A PET scan study of people with ________ found increased activity in the amygdala.
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schizophrenia
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Oxygen deprivation at the time of birth is a known risk factor for
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eclectic
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A therapist who uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic methods is said to be
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free association
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While focusing on several intrusive thoughts that had been bothering her recently, Jenny was instructed by her therapist to report any ideas or memories stimulated by these thoughts. Jenny’s therapist was making use of a technique known as
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interpreting the meaning of patients’ resistance to therapeutic procedures
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Classical psychoanalysts were especially interested in
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Carl Rogers
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Who emphasized the importance of active listening in the process of psychotherapy?
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exposure therapy
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A therapist helps Rebecca overcome her fear of water by getting her to swim in the family’s backyard pool three times a day for two consecutive weeks. The therapist’s approach to helping Rebecca best illustrates
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exposure therapy
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Systematic desensitization is a form of
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operant conditioning
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In a home for troubled youth, adolescents receive large colored buttons when they hang up their clothes, make their beds, and come to meals on time. The adolescents return the buttons to staff members to receive bedtime snacks or watch TV. This best illustrates an application of
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emphasize the importance of clients’ personal interpretations of life events
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Cognitive therapists are most likely to
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resistance
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During her weekly therapy sessions, Sabrina will often abruptly shift the focus of her attention and lose her train of thought. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates
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Sigmund Freud
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Who emphasized the importance of transference in the therapeutic process?
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enabling clients to feel unconditionally accepted
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Client-centered therapists emphasize the importance of
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systematic desensitization
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To help Adam reduce his fear of dogs, a therapist encourages him to physically relax and then simply imagine that he is walking toward a friendly and harmless little dog. The therapist’s technique best illustrates
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aversive conditioning
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To help Janet overcome her nearly irresistible craving for chocolate, a therapist provides her with a supply of chocolate candies that contain solidified droplets of a harmless but very bitter-tasting substance. This approach to treatment best illustrates
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cognitive-behavioral therapy
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Nancy’s therapist encourages her to think about her strengths rather than her weaknesses and to develop a habit of thanking others when they compliment her or provide emotional support. The therapist’s approach best illustrates
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Albert Ellis
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Which of the following therapists would most likely challenge and dispute a client’s self-defeating thoughts?
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cognitive therapy
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The goal of stress inoculation training is to reduce incapacitating anxiety by encouraging people to say positive things to themselves during anxiety-producing situations. This best illustrates a form of