PSYCHOLOGY 1 – Flashcards

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Structuralism
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Using introspection to reveal structure of the human mind
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Functionalism
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How mental and behavioral processes function
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Behaviorism
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Psychologists should be objective, and study behavior without reference to mental processes
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Humanistic Psychology
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The ways in which environmental influences can nurture or limit growth potential.
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Cognitive Neuroscience
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The brain activity that is underlying mental activity
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Psychology
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The science of behavior and mental processes
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Nature-Nurture issue
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The relative contribution of genes and experience in developmental behavior.
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Natural Selection
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Darwin explained how inherited traits that result in reproductive and survival success are passed on to future generations.
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Levels of Analysis
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Differing views including biological, psychological, and socio-cultural that are involved in analyzing a phenomenon.
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Biopsychosocial Approach
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An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and socio cultural levels of analysis
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Basic Research
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Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
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Applied Research
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Scientific studies that aim at tackling practical problems.
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Counseling Psychology
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A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (school, work, relationships) to improve wellbeing and every day life.
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Clinical Psychology
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A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats psychological disorders
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Psychiatry
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A branch in medicine that deals with psychological disorders and provide medical treatments such as prescribed drugs.
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Positive Psychology
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Scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals thrive .
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Testing Effect
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Enhanced memory after retrieving, testing, rather than rereading.
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SQ3R
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survey, questions, read, retrieve, and review.
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Nature is to nurture as
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Biology is to experience
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A psychologists treating emotionally troubled adolescents at a local mental health agency is most likely to be?
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A clinical psychologist
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A mental health professional with a medical degree who can prescribe medication is a?
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Psychiatrist
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A psychologist conducting basic research knowledge could
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observe and analyze, gather data
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Hindsight Bias
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The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that one would have foreseen it. "I knew it all along" phenomenon
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Critical Thinking
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Examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, accumulates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
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Theory
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An explanation based on principles that organize observations and predict behaviors or events.
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Hypothesis
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Testable predictions, that is often implied by theory
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Operational Definition
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A statement of the procedures used to define research varibales
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Replication
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Repeating the research study with different participants in a different circumstance
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Case Study
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In-depth analysis of special individuals.
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Naturalistic Observation
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Watching/recording individuals behavior in a natural setting
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Survey
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Self reports in which people answer questions about their behavior and attitudes.
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What are disadvantages of case studies?
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They can be misleading if the person is atypical and unrepresentative of the general population being studied.
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What are the disadvantages of natural observation?
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Unable to manipulate or control
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What are the disadvantages of surveys
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They are less in depth and the way in which a phrase is worded can have an effect on a persons response.
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Population
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Everyone in a group being study, of which samples can be drawn
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Random Samples
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A sample that is fairly representative of a population because every person in the entire group has an equal chance of participating.
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Correlation
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A measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together
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Correlational Coefficient
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(-1 to 1) positive correlation is (0 to 1) and reflects a direct relationship. negative correlation (-1 to 0) and reflects an inverse relationship. Help reveal to what extent 2 things relate to each other
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Experiment
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A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors(independent) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process(dependent)
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Experimental group
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The group that is receiving treatment
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Control group
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The group that is not exposed to the treatment. Serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
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Random Assignment
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Assigning the participants to experimental and control groups by chance in order to minimize preexisting differences between the groups.
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Double Blind Procedure
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Where neither the participants nor the administrators are aware of which group is receiving the placebo and the medicine
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Placebo Effect
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Experimental results that are as a result of expectations alone.
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Independent variable
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The experimental factor, and is the variable that is manipulated
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Confounding variable
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A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in the experiment
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Dependent variable
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The outcome factor, the variable that changes in a response to manipulations of the independent variable.
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Culture
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The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people
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Informed consent
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Giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to decide whether they wish to participate
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Debriefing
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The post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.
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Predictions implied by a theory is
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hypothesis
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Which is not a technique that psychologists use to observe and describe behavior
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Correlational research
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What are 3 descriptive research methods
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Natural observation, case study, and surveys
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To explain behaviors and clarify cause and effect psychologists use
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Experiments
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Biological Psychology
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Study the link between biology and behavior
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Neuron
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Nerve cells
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Dendrites
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Receive messages from other cells
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Axon
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Passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, and glands
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Myelin sheath
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fatty tissue layer that segmentally encases the axon and enables a greater transmission speed of neural impulses
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Glial Cells
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cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons. They play a role in learning and thinking
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Action Potential
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A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon
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Threshold
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The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural response
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Synapse
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The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap is called the synaptic cleft/gap.
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Neurotransmitters
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Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released they travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites of the receiving neuron which will generate a neural impulse.
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Endorphins
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...
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Nervous System
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The body's speedy, electrochemical communication network , consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system.
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CNS
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Central nervous system, brain and spinal cord
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PNS
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peripheral nervous system, the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
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Nerves
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bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
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Sensory Neurons
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afferent,neurons that carry incoming info from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
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Motor Neurons
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efferent, neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
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Interneurons
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Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs.
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Somatic Nervous system
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division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
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Autonomic Nervous system
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division of PNS that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs.
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sympathetic nervous system
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division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing energy in stressful situations
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parasympathetic nervous system
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The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body and conserves its energy.
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2 sub units of Nervous system
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The PNS AND CNS
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2 sub units of PNS
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somatic and autonomic
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2 subunits of the autonomic
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sympathetic and parasympathetic
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Electroencephalogram
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amplified recording of waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brains surface
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Positron emission tomography
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visual display of the brain activity that detects radioactive form of glucose uptake in the parts of the brain where a given task is preformed
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magnetic resonance imaging
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uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce images of soft tissue(structure)
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functional magnetic resonance imaging
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tracks successive images of brain tissue to show brain function. Brain activity by successive MRI scans. shows brain function as well as structure
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plasticity
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the brains ability to modify itself after damage. The ability to build new pathways based on experience
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neurogenesis
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Formation of new neurons
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Hemispherectomy
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surgery involving removal of half of the brain
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Infancy
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birth-1; trust vs mistrust; If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
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Toddlerhood
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1-3yr; autonomy vs shame and doubt; Toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities.
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Preschool
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3-6yr; initiative vs guilt; Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent.
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Elementary School
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6-puberty; competence vs. inferiority; children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks or they feel inferior.
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Adolescence
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Teens-20s; identity vs role confusion; Teenagers seek a sense of self by testing roles and integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are.
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young adulthood
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20s-40s; intimacy vs isolation; young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated.
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middle adulthood
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40s-60s; generativity vs stagnation; people either discover a sense of contributing to the world or they feel a lack of purpose.
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late adulthood
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60+; integrity or failure; an older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction of failure
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Erik Erikson believed that each stage of life has its own ------ task, a crisis, that needs resolution.
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psychosocial task, a social task or challenge of adolescence that leads to development.
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kohlberg: which stage of morality focuses on upholding the laws and social rules?
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Conventional morality
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kohlberg: which stage of morality focuses on self-interest?
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Pre conventional morality
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kohlberg: Which stage of morality focuses on self-denied ethical principles?
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Post conventional morality
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What are the stages or kohlbergs levels of moral thinking
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pre conventional, conventional, and post conventional
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Pre conventional morality
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before age 9; morality is governed by self-interest, and obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards.
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Conventional morality
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early adolescence; uphold laws and rules (morality) to gain social approval or maintain social order.
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Post Conventional morality
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adolescence and beyond; actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles.
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Kohlberg sought to describe the development of --- reasoning
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moral
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Is the sequence of physical development more predictable than timing?
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yes
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Adolescence general definition
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The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
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How do people react to physical development? consider early maturation for boys and girls.
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Stronger more athletic boys are popular, self-assured but more at risk for alcohol use, premature sexual activity. Early maturation for girls is associated with older adolescents or suffer from teasing
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During adolescence there is a selective pruning process that begins that gets rid of ?
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unused neuron connections
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Puberty
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Period of sexual maturation
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Which part of the brain is still maturing until the age of 25?
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The frontal lobe
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Delayed maturation of frontal lobe results in adolescents weighing long term or short term effects more heavily?
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Short term
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Moral reasoning
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The thinking that occurs as we consider right from wrong.
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engaged emotions can alter ?
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moral judgement
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identity
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our sense of self
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Social identity
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forms around distinctiveness, group memberships
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Capacity for intimacy
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the ability to form emotionally close relationships.
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The scientific study of behavior without reference to mental processes was of special interest to
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b f skinner
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Debates as to whether alcohol abuse is biologically determined or culturally influenced are most relevant to the issue of
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nature vs nurture
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An integrated explanation of human behavior provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other perspectives in psychology is most clearly provided by
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biopsychosocial approach
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Understanding why the fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of our human ancestors is most relevant to the
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evolutionary perspective
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What are some examples of different psychological perspectives?
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Behavioral, cognitive, evolutionaly
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Neuroscience
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How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
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Evolutionary
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How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes
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Behavior genetics
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How our genes and environment influence our individual differences
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Psychodynamic
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How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
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Behavioral
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How we learn observable responses
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Cognitive
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How we encode, process, store and retrieve info
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Socio cultural
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How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
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Which perspective would be most helpful for understanding the role of retrieval practice on long-term memory of information?
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cognitive
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Testing your ability to recall information you have just studied improves your long-term retention of that information. Psychologists have referred to this as
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The testing effect
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To study inner sensations, images, and feelings, Edward Titchener engaged people in self-reflective
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introspection
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The growth potential of healthy people was emphasized by
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humanistic
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A study of the relationship between reasoning capacities and brain functions would be of most direct interest to
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cognitive
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Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the links between hormone levels and sexual motivation?
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neuroscience
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Focusing on the extent to which behavior is influenced by motives outside our own awareness is most relevant to the ________ perspective.
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psychodynamic
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Dr. Stevens provides psychotherapy to people who suffer from excessive anxiety. Dr. Stevens is most likely a ________ psychologist.
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clinical psychologist
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After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates
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hindsight basis
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When Leanne heard about experimental evidence that drinking orange juice triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the tested children had been randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Leanne's reaction best illustrates
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critical thinking
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Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey's prediction regarding anger management is an example of
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hypothesis
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Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter using?
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naturalistic observation
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A negative correlation between people's work-related stress and their marital happiness would indicate that
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higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of work-related stress.
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Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether athletic performance is boosted by caffeine consumption?
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the experiment
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In drug-treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to
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placebo effects
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To assess whether sense of humor is affected by sexual stimulation, researchers exposed married couples to either sexually stimulating or to sexually nonstimulating movie scenes prior to watching a comedy skit. In this research, the independent variable
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levels of sexual stimulation
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Ethical principles developed by psychologists urge investigators to
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treat research participants information confidentially
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Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates
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overconfidence
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functions of psychological theories
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1)organize scientific observations 2)explain observed facts 3)generate hypothesis
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Every twenty-fifth person who subscribed to a weekly news magazine was contacted by market researchers to complete a survey of opinions regarding the magazine's contents. The researchers were applying the technique known as
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random sampling
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know control group vs experimental group
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group untreated vs group receiving treatment
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know independent variable vs dependent variable
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...
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in a well-preformed experiment minimize
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confounding variables- variable other than independent variable that has an effect on results
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natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called
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endorphins
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drugs that block reuptake of serotonin will have a high concentration of serotonin where?
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in synaptic gap
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vast majority of neurons in body are
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interneurons
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epinephrine
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raises blood pressure
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norepinephrine
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raises blood sugar levels
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which hormone enables contractions with birthing and milk flow
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oxytocin
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To excite or inhibit an action potential in a receiving neuron, a neurotransmitter must cross the a. axon.
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synaptic cleft
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release of ? to muscle cell receptors triggers muscle contractions.
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ACh
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Peripheral nervous system consists of
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sensory and motor neurons
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Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments?
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Frontal lobe
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Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
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left cerebral hemisphere
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Mapmakers can selectively lesion( destroy) tiny clusters of normal or defective brain cells, leaving surrounding tissue unharmed. This can be natural or experimentally caused lesion. and what do they do?
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Use modern micro electrodes with tips small enough to detect electrical pulse in a single neuron. They can stimulate different parts of brain and observe the effects
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To what extent can a damaged brain reorganize itself, and what is neurogenesis?
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The brain's plasticity is its ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience. Some neural tissue can reorganize in response to damage. The brain continually changes, builds new pathways, and adjusts to damage and new experiences.
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Plasticity helps explain why some studies have found deaf people to have enhanced peripheral vision
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...
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The brain attempts to self repair through which 2 processes?
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1) plasticity and reorganizing neural tissue 2) neurogenesis which is the production of new brain cells
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The Brain's plasticity Essay (medical condition, treatment, and result, application to plasticity concept)
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...
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Developmental psychology
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examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span.
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What are the 3 major issues of Developmental psychology
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1) Continuity and stages 2) Stability and change 3) Nature and nurture
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Continuity and stages
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What parts of development are gradual and continuous, and what parts change abruptly in separate stages.
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Stability and change
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Which of our traits persist through life and how do we change as we age?
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researchers who emphasize experience and learning see development as
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gradual and continuous
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researchers who emphasize biological maturation see development as
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a sequence of genetically predisposed stages or steps
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Jean Piaget offers stage theories for which type of development?
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cognitive development
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Lawrence Kohlberg offers stage theories for which type of development?
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Moral development
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Erik Erikson offers stage theories for which type of development?
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psychosocial development
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What are refutes to Piagets work?
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Young children have abilities Piaget attributed to later stages.
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What are refutes to Kohlberg's work
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His work reflects an individualistic worldview and emphasized thinking over feeling and acting.
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What is refute to stage theories
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Life is not predictable series of steps. Chance events can influence developmental behavior. Change is more gradual and less culturally universal than theorists supposed
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What characteristics are stable through life?
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Temperament, traits, as people grow older personality stabilizes
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What characteristics are prone to change?
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social attitudes, new coping strategies
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Stability provides what and ability to change provides what
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stability provides identity and ability to change provides hope for a brighter future
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temperament
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A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
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Zygotes
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conception to 2 weeks, fertilized eggs
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Embryo
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2 weeks after fertilization through 8 weeks, the developing human organism
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Fetus
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The developing human organism from 9 weeks to birth
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teratogens
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Agents such as toxins, chemicals, and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
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Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant women's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
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What are some newborn abilities?
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coordinated reflexes, which are suited for survival. When something touches cheek, the babies turn toward touch open mouth and root for nipple, can suck, which involves action of tongue, swallowing, and breathing.
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habituation
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A decrease in responding with repeated stimulation.
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Brain maturation provides us with neural connections while experiences ?
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strengthen some neural pathways and weaken others from disuse
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Critical Period
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An optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce normal development.
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Maturation
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Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
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As an infants muscles and nervous system mature,
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motor skills emerge
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Genes guide motor development. Before necessary muscular and neural maturation, motor skills will not cannot be carried out.
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...
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Cognition
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All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
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Schemas
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concepts or mental molds into which we can fill our experiences. Framework that organizes and interprets information
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Assimilate
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Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.
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Accomodate
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Adapting our current understanding to incorporate new information
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Sensorimotor
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birth-2 yr; experience world through senses and actions, look, touch, hear; object permanence and stranger anxiety
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Pre operational
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2-6 or 7; Representing things with words and images. More intuition rather than logical reasoning; Pretend play and egocentrism, and develop theory of mind.
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Concrete Operational
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7-11yr; thinking logically about concrete events, grasp concrete analogies and perform arithmetical operations; conservation and mathematical transformations
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Formal Operational
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12-adulthood; abstract reasoning; abstract logic and potential for mature moral reasoning
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Autistic children have difficulty
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understanding that another's state of mind differs from their own.
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ACh acetylcholine
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enables muscle action, learning, memory
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Dopamine
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influences movement, undersupply leads to parkinsons
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Serotonin
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Affects mood, hunger, sleep, arousal
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Norepinephrine
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alertness, arousal
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GABA
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major inhibitory neurotransmitter
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Glutamate
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excitatory neurotransmitter involved in memory
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question
Structuralism
answer
Using introspection to reveal structure of the human mind
question
Functionalism
answer
How mental and behavioral processes function
question
Behaviorism
answer
Psychologists should be objective, and study behavior without reference to mental processes
question
Humanistic Psychology
answer
The ways in which environmental influences can nurture or limit growth potential.
question
Cognitive Neuroscience
answer
The brain activity that is underlying mental activity
question
Psychology
answer
The science of behavior and mental processes
question
Nature-Nurture issue
answer
The relative contribution of genes and experience in developmental behavior.
question
Natural Selection
answer
Darwin explained how inherited traits that result in reproductive and survival success are passed on to future generations.
question
Levels of Analysis
answer
Differing views including biological, psychological, and socio-cultural that are involved in analyzing a phenomenon.
question
Biopsychosocial Approach
answer
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and socio cultural levels of analysis
question
Basic Research
answer
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
question
Applied Research
answer
Scientific studies that aim at tackling practical problems.
question
Counseling Psychology
answer
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (school, work, relationships) to improve wellbeing and every day life.
question
Clinical Psychology
answer
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats psychological disorders
question
Psychiatry
answer
A branch in medicine that deals with psychological disorders and provide medical treatments such as prescribed drugs.
question
Positive Psychology
answer
Scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals thrive .
question
Testing Effect
answer
Enhanced memory after retrieving, testing, rather than rereading.
question
SQ3R
answer
survey, questions, read, retrieve, and review.
question
Nature is to nurture as
answer
Biology is to experience
question
A psychologists treating emotionally troubled adolescents at a local mental health agency is most likely to be?
answer
A clinical psychologist
question
A mental health professional with a medical degree who can prescribe medication is a?
answer
Psychiatrist
question
A psychologist conducting basic research knowledge could
answer
observe and analyze, gather data
question
Hindsight Bias
answer
The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that one would have foreseen it. "I knew it all along" phenomenon
question
Critical Thinking
answer
Examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, accumulates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
question
Theory
answer
An explanation based on principles that organize observations and predict behaviors or events.
question
Hypothesis
answer
Testable predictions, that is often implied by theory
question
Operational Definition
answer
A statement of the procedures used to define research varibales
question
Replication
answer
Repeating the research study with different participants in a different circumstance
question
Case Study
answer
In-depth analysis of special individuals.
question
Naturalistic Observation
answer
Watching/recording individuals behavior in a natural setting
question
Survey
answer
Self reports in which people answer questions about their behavior and attitudes.
question
What are disadvantages of case studies?
answer
They can be misleading if the person is atypical and unrepresentative of the general population being studied.
question
What are the disadvantages of natural observation?
answer
Unable to manipulate or control
question
What are the disadvantages of surveys
answer
They are less in depth and the way in which a phrase is worded can have an effect on a persons response.
question
Population
answer
Everyone in a group being study, of which samples can be drawn
question
Random Samples
answer
A sample that is fairly representative of a population because every person in the entire group has an equal chance of participating.
question
Correlation
answer
A measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together
question
Correlational Coefficient
answer
(-1 to 1) positive correlation is (0 to 1) and reflects a direct relationship. negative correlation (-1 to 0) and reflects an inverse relationship. Help reveal to what extent 2 things relate to each other
question
Experiment
answer
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors(independent) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process(dependent)
question
Experimental group
answer
The group that is receiving treatment
question
Control group
answer
The group that is not exposed to the treatment. Serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
question
Random Assignment
answer
Assigning the participants to experimental and control groups by chance in order to minimize preexisting differences between the groups.
question
Double Blind Procedure
answer
Where neither the participants nor the administrators are aware of which group is receiving the placebo and the medicine
question
Placebo Effect
answer
Experimental results that are as a result of expectations alone.
question
Independent variable
answer
The experimental factor, and is the variable that is manipulated
question
Confounding variable
answer
A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in the experiment
question
Dependent variable
answer
The outcome factor, the variable that changes in a response to manipulations of the independent variable.
question
Culture
answer
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people
question
Informed consent
answer
Giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to decide whether they wish to participate
question
Debriefing
answer
The post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.
question
Predictions implied by a theory is
answer
hypothesis
question
Which is not a technique that psychologists use to observe and describe behavior
answer
Correlational research
question
What are 3 descriptive research methods
answer
Natural observation, case study, and surveys
question
To explain behaviors and clarify cause and effect psychologists use
answer
Experiments
question
Biological Psychology
answer
Study the link between biology and behavior
question
Neuron
answer
Nerve cells
question
Dendrites
answer
Receive messages from other cells
question
Axon
answer
Passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, and glands
question
Myelin sheath
answer
fatty tissue layer that segmentally encases the axon and enables a greater transmission speed of neural impulses
question
Glial Cells
answer
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons. They play a role in learning and thinking
question
Action Potential
answer
A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon
question
Threshold
answer
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural response
question
Synapse
answer
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap is called the synaptic cleft/gap.
question
Neurotransmitters
answer
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released they travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites of the receiving neuron which will generate a neural impulse.
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Endorphins
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...
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Nervous System
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The body's speedy, electrochemical communication network , consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system.
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CNS
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Central nervous system, brain and spinal cord
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PNS
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peripheral nervous system, the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
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Nerves
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bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
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Sensory Neurons
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afferent,neurons that carry incoming info from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
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Motor Neurons
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efferent, neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
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Interneurons
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Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs.
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Somatic Nervous system
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division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
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Autonomic Nervous system
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division of PNS that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs.
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sympathetic nervous system
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division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing energy in stressful situations
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parasympathetic nervous system
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The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body and conserves its energy.
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2 sub units of Nervous system
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The PNS AND CNS
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2 sub units of PNS
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somatic and autonomic
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2 subunits of the autonomic
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sympathetic and parasympathetic
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Electroencephalogram
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amplified recording of waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brains surface
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Positron emission tomography
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visual display of the brain activity that detects radioactive form of glucose uptake in the parts of the brain where a given task is preformed
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magnetic resonance imaging
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uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce images of soft tissue(structure)
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functional magnetic resonance imaging
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tracks successive images of brain tissue to show brain function. Brain activity by successive MRI scans. shows brain function as well as structure
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plasticity
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the brains ability to modify itself after damage. The ability to build new pathways based on experience
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neurogenesis
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Formation of new neurons
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Hemispherectomy
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surgery involving removal of half of the brain
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Infancy
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birth-1; trust vs mistrust; If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
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Toddlerhood
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1-3yr; autonomy vs shame and doubt; Toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities.
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Preschool
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3-6yr; initiative vs guilt; Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent.
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Elementary School
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6-puberty; competence vs. inferiority; children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks or they feel inferior.
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Adolescence
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Teens-20s; identity vs role confusion; Teenagers seek a sense of self by testing roles and integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are.
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young adulthood
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20s-40s; intimacy vs isolation; young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated.
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middle adulthood
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40s-60s; generativity vs stagnation; people either discover a sense of contributing to the world or they feel a lack of purpose.
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late adulthood
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60+; integrity or failure; an older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction of failure
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Erik Erikson believed that each stage of life has its own ------ task, a crisis, that needs resolution.
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psychosocial task, a social task or challenge of adolescence that leads to development.
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kohlberg: which stage of morality focuses on upholding the laws and social rules?
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Conventional morality
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kohlberg: which stage of morality focuses on self-interest?
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Pre conventional morality
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kohlberg: Which stage of morality focuses on self-denied ethical principles?
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Post conventional morality
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What are the stages or kohlbergs levels of moral thinking
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pre conventional, conventional, and post conventional
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Pre conventional morality
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before age 9; morality is governed by self-interest, and obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards.
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Conventional morality
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early adolescence; uphold laws and rules (morality) to gain social approval or maintain social order.
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Post Conventional morality
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adolescence and beyond; actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles.
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Kohlberg sought to describe the development of --- reasoning
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moral
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Is the sequence of physical development more predictable than timing?
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yes
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Adolescence general definition
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The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
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How do people react to physical development? consider early maturation for boys and girls.
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Stronger more athletic boys are popular, self-assured but more at risk for alcohol use, premature sexual activity. Early maturation for girls is associated with older adolescents or suffer from teasing
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During adolescence there is a selective pruning process that begins that gets rid of ?
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unused neuron connections
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Puberty
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Period of sexual maturation
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Which part of the brain is still maturing until the age of 25?
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The frontal lobe
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Delayed maturation of frontal lobe results in adolescents weighing long term or short term effects more heavily?
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Short term
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Moral reasoning
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The thinking that occurs as we consider right from wrong.
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engaged emotions can alter ?
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moral judgement
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identity
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our sense of self
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Social identity
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forms around distinctiveness, group memberships
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Capacity for intimacy
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the ability to form emotionally close relationships.
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The scientific study of behavior without reference to mental processes was of special interest to
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b f skinner
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Debates as to whether alcohol abuse is biologically determined or culturally influenced are most relevant to the issue of
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nature vs nurture
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An integrated explanation of human behavior provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other perspectives in psychology is most clearly provided by
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biopsychosocial approach
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Understanding why the fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of our human ancestors is most relevant to the
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evolutionary perspective
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What are some examples of different psychological perspectives?
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Behavioral, cognitive, evolutionaly
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Neuroscience
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How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
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Evolutionary
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How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes
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Behavior genetics
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How our genes and environment influence our individual differences
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Psychodynamic
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How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
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Behavioral
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How we learn observable responses
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Cognitive
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How we encode, process, store and retrieve info
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Socio cultural
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How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
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Which perspective would be most helpful for understanding the role of retrieval practice on long-term memory of information?
answer
cognitive
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Testing your ability to recall information you have just studied improves your long-term retention of that information. Psychologists have referred to this as
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The testing effect
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To study inner sensations, images, and feelings, Edward Titchener engaged people in self-reflective
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introspection
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The growth potential of healthy people was emphasized by
answer
humanistic
question
A study of the relationship between reasoning capacities and brain functions would be of most direct interest to
answer
cognitive
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Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the links between hormone levels and sexual motivation?
answer
neuroscience
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Focusing on the extent to which behavior is influenced by motives outside our own awareness is most relevant to the ________ perspective.
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psychodynamic
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Dr. Stevens provides psychotherapy to people who suffer from excessive anxiety. Dr. Stevens is most likely a ________ psychologist.
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clinical psychologist
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After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates
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hindsight basis
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When Leanne heard about experimental evidence that drinking orange juice triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the tested children had been randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Leanne's reaction best illustrates
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critical thinking
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Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey's prediction regarding anger management is an example of
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hypothesis
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Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter using?
answer
naturalistic observation
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A negative correlation between people's work-related stress and their marital happiness would indicate that
answer
higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of work-related stress.
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Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether athletic performance is boosted by caffeine consumption?
answer
the experiment
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In drug-treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to
answer
placebo effects
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To assess whether sense of humor is affected by sexual stimulation, researchers exposed married couples to either sexually stimulating or to sexually nonstimulating movie scenes prior to watching a comedy skit. In this research, the independent variable
answer
levels of sexual stimulation
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Ethical principles developed by psychologists urge investigators to
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treat research participants information confidentially
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Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates
answer
overconfidence
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functions of psychological theories
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1)organize scientific observations 2)explain observed facts 3)generate hypothesis
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Every twenty-fifth person who subscribed to a weekly news magazine was contacted by market researchers to complete a survey of opinions regarding the magazine's contents. The researchers were applying the technique known as
answer
random sampling
question
know control group vs experimental group
answer
group untreated vs group receiving treatment
question
know independent variable vs dependent variable
answer
...
question
in a well-preformed experiment minimize
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confounding variables- variable other than independent variable that has an effect on results
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natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called
answer
endorphins
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drugs that block reuptake of serotonin will have a high concentration of serotonin where?
answer
in synaptic gap
question
vast majority of neurons in body are
answer
interneurons
question
epinephrine
answer
raises blood pressure
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norepinephrine
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raises blood sugar levels
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which hormone enables contractions with birthing and milk flow
answer
oxytocin
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To excite or inhibit an action potential in a receiving neuron, a neurotransmitter must cross the a. axon.
answer
synaptic cleft
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release of ? to muscle cell receptors triggers muscle contractions.
answer
ACh
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Peripheral nervous system consists of
answer
sensory and motor neurons
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Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments?
answer
Frontal lobe
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Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
answer
left cerebral hemisphere
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Mapmakers can selectively lesion( destroy) tiny clusters of normal or defective brain cells, leaving surrounding tissue unharmed. This can be natural or experimentally caused lesion. and what do they do?
answer
Use modern micro electrodes with tips small enough to detect electrical pulse in a single neuron. They can stimulate different parts of brain and observe the effects
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To what extent can a damaged brain reorganize itself, and what is neurogenesis?
answer
The brain's plasticity is its ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience. Some neural tissue can reorganize in response to damage. The brain continually changes, builds new pathways, and adjusts to damage and new experiences.
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Plasticity helps explain why some studies have found deaf people to have enhanced peripheral vision
answer
...
question
The brain attempts to self repair through which 2 processes?
answer
1) plasticity and reorganizing neural tissue 2) neurogenesis which is the production of new brain cells
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The Brain's plasticity Essay (medical condition, treatment, and result, application to plasticity concept)
answer
...
question
Developmental psychology
answer
examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span.
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What are the 3 major issues of Developmental psychology
answer
1) Continuity and stages 2) Stability and change 3) Nature and nurture
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Continuity and stages
answer
What parts of development are gradual and continuous, and what parts change abruptly in separate stages.
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Stability and change
answer
Which of our traits persist through life and how do we change as we age?
question
researchers who emphasize experience and learning see development as
answer
gradual and continuous
question
researchers who emphasize biological maturation see development as
answer
a sequence of genetically predisposed stages or steps
question
Jean Piaget offers stage theories for which type of development?
answer
cognitive development
question
Lawrence Kohlberg offers stage theories for which type of development?
answer
Moral development
question
Erik Erikson offers stage theories for which type of development?
answer
psychosocial development
question
What are refutes to Piagets work?
answer
Young children have abilities Piaget attributed to later stages.
question
What are refutes to Kohlberg's work
answer
His work reflects an individualistic worldview and emphasized thinking over feeling and acting.
question
What is refute to stage theories
answer
Life is not predictable series of steps. Chance events can influence developmental behavior. Change is more gradual and less culturally universal than theorists supposed
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What characteristics are stable through life?
answer
Temperament, traits, as people grow older personality stabilizes
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What characteristics are prone to change?
answer
social attitudes, new coping strategies
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Stability provides what and ability to change provides what
answer
stability provides identity and ability to change provides hope for a brighter future
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temperament
answer
A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
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Zygotes
answer
conception to 2 weeks, fertilized eggs
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Embryo
answer
2 weeks after fertilization through 8 weeks, the developing human organism
question
Fetus
answer
The developing human organism from 9 weeks to birth
question
teratogens
answer
Agents such as toxins, chemicals, and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
question
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
answer
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant women's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
question
What are some newborn abilities?
answer
coordinated reflexes, which are suited for survival. When something touches cheek, the babies turn toward touch open mouth and root for nipple, can suck, which involves action of tongue, swallowing, and breathing.
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habituation
answer
A decrease in responding with repeated stimulation.
question
Brain maturation provides us with neural connections while experiences ?
answer
strengthen some neural pathways and weaken others from disuse
question
Critical Period
answer
An optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce normal development.
question
Maturation
answer
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
question
As an infants muscles and nervous system mature,
answer
motor skills emerge
question
Genes guide motor development. Before necessary muscular and neural maturation, motor skills will not cannot be carried out.
answer
...
question
Cognition
answer
All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
question
Schemas
answer
concepts or mental molds into which we can fill our experiences. Framework that organizes and interprets information
question
Assimilate
answer
Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.
question
Accomodate
answer
Adapting our current understanding to incorporate new information
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Sensorimotor
answer
birth-2 yr; experience world through senses and actions, look, touch, hear; object permanence and stranger anxiety
question
Pre operational
answer
2-6 or 7; Representing things with words and images. More intuition rather than logical reasoning; Pretend play and egocentrism, and develop theory of mind.
question
Concrete Operational
answer
7-11yr; thinking logically about concrete events, grasp concrete analogies and perform arithmetical operations; conservation and mathematical transformations
question
Formal Operational
answer
12-adulthood; abstract reasoning; abstract logic and potential for mature moral reasoning
question
Autistic children have difficulty
answer
understanding that another's state of mind differs from their own.
question
ACh acetylcholine
answer
enables muscle action, learning, memory
question
Dopamine
answer
influences movement, undersupply leads to parkinsons
question
Serotonin
answer
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, arousal
question
Norepinephrine
answer
alertness, arousal
question
GABA
answer
major inhibitory neurotransmitter
question
Glutamate
answer
excitatory neurotransmitter involved in memory
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