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Psychology 1- Educational Psychology (Lectures 17-18)

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learning
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“A relatively permanent change in an individual’s behavior or potential behavior as a result of experience or practice”
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teaching
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“Purposeful direction and management of the learning process”
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schooling
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“Teaching and learning that takes place in a formal environment”
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Individual Development Function
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“Developing capacities and potential of the individual ; Preparing the individual for success in a specific society or culture”
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Social & Cultural Function
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“A way for society to transmit knowledge, beliefs, values and symbolic expressions to new members of the community; This will make communication possible within a society”
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Aims of Educational Psychology
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• Teaching methods (developing & evaluating) • Teaching materials/ Figure out what is effective and what is not • Solve learning problems • Measure learning ability and educational progress • Devise achievement tests • Investigate how children learn at different ages
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Piaget
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Who would support : “learning by exploration/ hands-on classroom activities (experimentation as opposed to step-by-step)” ?
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Piaget
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Who would support : “learner-centered orientation (not a curriculum or national testing program but promotes self-direction)” ?
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Piaget
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Who would support : “use of themes (The process of acquiring information is important, rather than the information itself) Ex: Teaching the theme ‘family’, learn a concept, compare, do something tactical, share with one another, then family day” ?
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Piaget
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Who would support : “focus on development of schemata (Instruction appropriate to stage of development) Ex: Primary school = conservation tasks Late Primary/Early Secondary = classification, seriation, compensation Secondary School = logical reasoning & critical thinking” ?
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Vygotsky
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Who would support : “social interaction (essential for acquiring meaning & advancing cognitive development; looks at associations between meaning and cultural interpretation) Ex: Adult reads & discusses a story with a child, focusing on the meaning that it has in the child’s social and cultural context?
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Vygotsky
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Who would support: “internalization (Concepts are initially acquired externally through dialogue or action with a more knowledgeable person ; Gradually these concepts become internalized as ways of thought ; Children begin to give themselves their own instructions to guide their behaviors – something that other people used to do for them) Ex: Speech-thought and language are initially independent processes but eventually they become intertwined and internalized” ?
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Vygotsky
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Who would support : “language and cultural tools (The context that one develops in helps influence behavior – not just the social interactions that one has ; Cultural Tools: tools that are passed from generation to generation that help children make sense of their world) Ex: language, maps, number systems, calendars, clocks, books, abacuses, Lego blocks” ?
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Social Construction of Meaning
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“mediation between situations encountered and the meanings they convey” (term used by Vygotsky on social interaction)
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Zone of Proximal Development
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“Skills too difficult to master when on own but can be managed with encouragement and guidance from a knowledgeable person “
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Scaffolding
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“Changing the amount of support to suit the cognitive potential or the needs of the individual. Initially the individual may require a lot of support in order to complete a task. However, over time the amount of support needed will reduce until the individual can eventually complete the task on his/her own.”
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risk factors
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Examples of _____ ______: • Maternal mental illness • Maternal anxiety • Maternal education • Occupation (of caregivers in home) • Available family support (Poor parent-child relationships) • Family size (larger= more difficult) • Stressful life events • Disadvantaged minority status • Low Socioeconomic Status (SES) • Marital distress
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protective factors
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Examples of ______ _______: • Adaptive temperament (being able to adapt your personality accordingly) • Realistic goals • Competent, supportive caregivers (sometimes this is not parents) • Opportunities in school or work that create new experiences & reinforce skills (Ex: Enrichment) • High IQ at age 8 years • Low rates of seeking novelty at age 16 years (not particularly rebellious, not a risk taker, sensible) • Less contact with delinquent peers
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resilience
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“The ability to recover from challenges, life stresses, setbacks or difficult circumstances”
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Sameroff
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“(2010) educational psychologist who describes 4 types of models that are needed to understand how children develop in order to produce successful interventions: Regulation, Representational, Personal Change, and Contextual
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Sameroff’s Regulation Model
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• Developing individual within a social context • This relationship is dynamic: social context effects the child and the child effects the social context • E.g., Sameroff and Fiese (2000) Ice-cream-cone-in-can Model A balance between self-regulation and other-regulation
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Sameroff’s Representational Model
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• Model focuses on the parents and their cognitions • Looks at how parents understand their own experiences and the world they live in • Based on their own cognitions they make predictions and hold expectations about their own children
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Sameroff’s Personal Change Model
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• Explains development at the individual level • The individual becomes more complex as you move from infancy to childhood to adolescence to adulthood • E.g., Piaget
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Sameroff’s Contextual Model
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• Individual development cannot occur without a social context • E.g., Bronfenbrenner’s 1979 Social Ecological Model
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Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Model
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(1979) “Acknowledges social systems and settings that influence a child’s development, either directly or indirectly ; Nested subsystems like a Russian Doll”
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microsystem
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“Immediate systems that a child interacts with / participates in e.g., family, peer group, school, religious group”
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mesosystem
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“Systems that link the microsystems together ; Number of connections and quality of connections is important e.g., relationship between parents and school, playdates”
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exosystem
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“Larger social system in which the child does not function directly e.g., work place, local council”
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macrosystem
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“This layer comprises of cultural values, customs and laws”