Psych6: Emotional Development Flashcards

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Disorganized/disoriented attachment
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The quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who respond in a confused, contradictory fashion when reunited with the parent
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Self-recognition
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Identification of the self as a physically unique being
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Delay of gratification
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waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act
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internal working model
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a set of expectations derived from early care-giving experiences concerning the availability of attachment figures and their likelihood of providing support during times of stress. Becomes a model or guide for all future relationships.
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Easy child
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a child whose temperament is such that he or she quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences.
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Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
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In Erikson’s theory, the psychological conflict of toddlerhood, which is resolved positively if parents provide young children with suitable guidance and appropriate choices.
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Inhibited, or shy child
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A child whose temperament is such that he or she reacts negatively to and withdraws from novel stimuli.
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slow-to-warm-up child
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A child whose temperament is such that he or she is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood and adjusts slowly when faced with new experiences.
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Effortful control
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The self-regulatory dimension of temperament that involves voluntarily suppressing a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response. Variations in effortful control are evident in how effectively a child can focus and shift attention, inhibit impulses, and engage in problem solving to manage negative emotions.
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Interactional synchrony
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A sensitively tunes emotional dance, in which the caregiver responds to infant signal in a well-timed, appropriate fashion and both partners match emotional states, especially the positive ones.
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Attachment Q-sort
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An alternative method to the Strange Situation, Suitable for children between 1 and 4 years, that permits attachment to be assessed through observations in the home. Includes a set of 90 descriptors of child behavior that yield a score ranging form high to low in security.
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Secure base
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Infants use of the familiar caregiver as a point from which to explore the environment and return for emotional support.
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Uninhibited, or sociable child
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A child whose temperament is such that he or she displays positive emotion to and approaches novel stimuli.
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Social referencing
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Relying on a trusted persons emotional reaction to decide ho to respond in an uncertain situation.
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Categorical self
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Early categorization of the self according to salient ways in which people differ, such as age, sex, physical characteristics, and goodness and badness.
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Goodness-of-fit model
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An effective match between child-rearing practices and a child’s temperament, leading to favorable adjustment.
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Resistant attachment
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The quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who remain close to the parent before departure and display angry, resistive behavior when she or he returns.
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Empathy
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The ability to understand another’s emotional state and feel with that person, or respond emotionally in a similar way.
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Sensitive caregiving
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Caregiving involving prompt, consistent, and appropriate responses to infant signals.
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Separation anxiety
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an infants distressed reaction to the departure of the familiar caregiver.
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Strange Situation
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A laboratory procedure involving short separations from and reunions with the parent that assesses the quality of the attachment bond.
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Temperament
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Early appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity. Self-regulation refers to strategies that modify reactivity.
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Difficult child
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A child whose temperament is such that he or she is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely.
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Self-conscious emotions
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Emotions that involve injury or enhancement of the sense of self. Examples are shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy and pride.
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Ethological theory of attachment
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A theory formulated by Bowlby which views the infants emotional tie to the mother as an evolved response that promotes survival.
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Basic trust vs. mistrust
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In Erikson’s theory, the psychological conflict of infancy which is resolved positively if the balance of care, especially during feeding, is sympathetic and loving.
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Basic emotions
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Emotions that are universal in humans and other primates , have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival, and can be directly inferred from facial expressions. Includes happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust.
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Avoidant attachment
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The quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who are usually not distressed by parental separations and who avoid the parent when she or he returns.
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compliance
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Voluntary obedience to requests and commands
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Attachment
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The strong, affectionate tie that humans have with special people in their lives that leads them to feel pleasure and joy when interacting with them and to be comforted by their nearness during times of stress.
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Stranger anxiety
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The infants expression of fear in response to unfamiliar adults. Appears in babies after 6 months of age.
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Secure attachment
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the quality of attachment characterizing infants who are distressed by parental separation and easily comforted by the parent when she or he returns.
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Social smile
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The smile evoked by he stimulus of the human face. First appears between 6 and 10 weeks.
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Emotional self-regulation
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Strategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals.

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