During an EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential)
sodium enters the cell
During an IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)
potassium leaves the cell
What ion plays the most essential role in releasing a transmitter into the synapse?
Stimulating a receptor in the membrane that opens potassium channels
Large synaptic vesicles are produced in the ___ and are transported to the ___
soma; terminal buttons
The first demonstration of neurotransmitter
was shown by Otto Loewi using frog hearts
The contents of a synaptic vesicle include
How is a neurotransmitter removed from the synaptic cleft?
A and B (diffusion and enzymatic degradation)
The catecholamines (NE, DA, and E) are synthesized from which amino acid?
The cell bodies of neurons that release serotonin are located in the
Drugs of reward generally act to release ___ in the ___
dopamine; nucleus accumbens
Cell bodies of neurons that release acetylcholine in the cortex are located in the
A neuron’s own transmitters, detected by its presynaptic autoreceptors
inhibits the release or synthesis of that transmitter
Serotonin has been related to
A second messenger system can
Only A and C (alter ion flow through the membrane channels and initiate the production of new proteins)
What is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord?
Repeated stimulation of neuron may cause
The first demonstration that neurons communicated via chemical means was by
Morphine inhibits pain awareness by
blocking MAO actions
Nitric oxide is involved in which drug action
Which of the following neurotransmitters are synthesized from the amino acid, tyrosine?
All of the above (norepinephrine, dopamine, epinephrine)
___ is the transmitter that slows heart rate and activates skeletal muscles.
___ is a neurotransmitter involved in memory
Opioid peptides include which of the following
Which mechanism related to the stimulation of an action potential doesn’t belong?
Chloride channels open
Which of the following drugs would likely cause the most damage with chronic, high use over many years?
Cholinergic refers to which transmitter?
___ refers tot he reduced behavioral effect of a drug with repeated administration.
Which of the following is true of drug sensitization
C and D are correct (drug sensitization is less common than is drug tolerance, repeated drug administration may produce tolerance in one system and sensitization in another system)
Serotonin is synthesized from ___ which is derived from ___.
tryptophan; ingested nutrients
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced from
Administering a molecule that is a precursor for the synthesis of a synaptic neurotransmitter would be expected to
increase the rate of synthesis and release of that neurotransmitter
Which of the following is true of opioid neurons?
All of the above are correct (Naloxone is an example of an opioid receptor antagonist, heroin is an example of an opioid receptor agonist, opioids act to reduce pain, opioids can induce euphoria and reward)
All of the above are correct (is produced from the amino acid arginine, dilates blood vessels in metabolically active brain regions, acts as a messenger between neurons, stimulates changes in blood vessels that produce penile erections)
All of the above (is a transmitter produced in the brain, is the ligand for CB1 receptors, was discovered in the early 1990s)
Which of the following would be expected of CB1 receptors?
Memory impairments results from the effects of THC on hippocampal CB1 receptors
Activation of cannabinoid receptors
All of the above are correct (by THC reduces nausea and vomiting, results in analgesia, can be induced by ingestion of THC, stimulates appetite)
Drugs that block the re-uptake of serotonin or that cause the release of serotonin are used therapeutically to treat
All of the above (anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, obesity)
Which of the following is true of GABA in the brain?
the inhibitory effects of GABA act to stabilize the brain
Dopamine release in the ___ occurs when a stimulus is rewarding.
Cell bodies that synthesize serotonin are located in the ___, whereas those that synthesize norepinephrine are located in the ___.
raphe, locus coeruleus
Morphine actions at the opioid receptor cause which of the following
inhibition of calcium influx
disrupts the organization of the cell membrane
releases D A into the synapse
a serotonin agonist
increases influx of chloride
inhibits D A re-uptake (dopamine)
Based on the discussions in class, which of the following drugs poses the larges health threat following chronic use for many years
Peak blood levels of cocaine were found to 100 nanograms/milliliter (ng/ml). Thirty minutes later, they were 75 ng/ml, 60 minutes later they were 62.5 ng/ml. and 120 minutes later they were 50 ng/ml. The half-life ___
is 120 minutes
The GABA-A receptor has separate and distinct sites on the receptor molecule that can bind which of the following
valium and alcohol
Excitotoxicity is mediated by overstimulation exerted by which neurotransmitter
Chronic marijuana use in adolescents
can cause long-term deficits with attention and memory after drug use stops
Which of the following is/are monoamines?
All of the above (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine)
Which of the following never changes with regard to an action potential?
___ refers to the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior
A key characteristic of a drug is defined in the text, is that it
is an exogenous chemical
___ refers to the process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body, metabolized, and the excreted from the body
The ___ route is the fastest way for a drug to reach the brain
The ___ route of drug administration is commonly used for small laboratory animals such as the rat.
The ___ route of drug administration has the advantage of bypassing the blood-brain barrier.
An altercation of the physical properties of a drug that ___ would be expected to slow the onset of action of that drug.
All of the above are correct (increased lipid solubility, decreased water solubility, decreased metabolism of the drug via the liver, increased depot binding the drug in blood, bone and fat)
The ___ is a measure of the safety of a drug.
___ refers to the capacity of a drug molecule to bind to a key site of action
Which of the following is true of the therapeutic index?
more caution is required for a drug with a low therapeutic index
One mechanism for the tolerance produced by repeated drug administration is
a reduced number of receptors for the drug
An ___ is a drug that blocks or inhibits postsynaptic receptor effects
Activation of a presynaptic autoreceptor on dendrites can produce a hyperpolarization that
releases more transmitter
A drug that blocks presynaptic autoreceptor will most likely
increases the release of the neurotransmitter from the axon terminal
the two most commonly used synaptic neurotransmitters in the brain are
Which of the following is true of acetylcholine (ACh)?
All of the above are correct (ACh was the first transmitter to be identified within the body, ACh controls muscle movements, ACh is released at the neuromuscular junction, ACh is involved in the autonomic nervous system)
a drug that blocks acetylcholinesterase in the brain would be expected to
increase the synaptic levels of acetylcholine
an ionotropic receptor produces a postsynaptic potential that is
rapid and short in duration
the amino acid ___ is the synthesis precursor for dopamine and norepinephrine
degeneration of neurons within the ___ dopamine system leads to Parkinson’s disease
abnormal brain levels of dopamine are associated with
schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease
Which of the pairs belong together?
A and C (epinephrine and adrenaline, noradrenaline and norepinephrine)
One of the oldest methods used in neuroscience to study brain function is
Which of the following represents a problem for interpreting the effects of a brain lesion on behavior?
the lesion may impair the function of a distant neural structure, which in turn alters behavior
infusion of ___ into the brain will destroy cell bodies through the process of overstimulation.
imagine that feeding behavior was eliminated when a radio-frequency lesion was used to damage the lateral hypothalamus of a rat, which suggested that cells within this region initiate feeding. If a subsequent study failed to observe a change in feeding after injection of kainic acid into the lateral hypothalamus, what conclusions would be appropriate?
the changes in eating noted in the first study are due to fibers that are passing through the lateral hypothalamus
molecular biologists have tagged toxins to specific ___ that in turn will kill specific types of neurons.
A(n) ___ allows an experimenter to determine whether a lesion in a rat brain produced a specific behavioral effect.
sham-lesion control group
___ is a common landmark or reference point used for stereotaxic surgery
Which of the following is an advantage of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique?
the fMRI scan has a higher resolution to the PET scan
the surgical instrument used to implant an electrode or cannula into the brain is termed a
the three numbers listed on a page of a stereotaxic atlas describe
anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and medal-lateral coordinates
___ is considered to be a histological method
all of the above are correct (fixing the brain, visual examination of a stained section, cutting the brain, staining the brain)
the ___ instrument is used to slice the brain into thin pieces for later examination
of the structures in the following list, cresyl violet stains ___ most intensely
the RNA, DNA, and associated proteins in cell bodies are collectively referred to as
Which of the following structures can be visualized with the light microscope?
The functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) technique measures change in ___ to image brain metabolic activity
blood oxygen level
Which term below means “moving forward”?
The ___ technique would be used to trace efferent axons from a brain region
anterograde labeling method
the key use of PHA-L, a lectin made by kidney beans in neuroscience is to
label neuronal pathways by anterograde transport
Which of these does not rely on destruction of brain tissue to be effective?
The ___ labeling method uses chemicals that are taken up by dendrites and then transported through axons toward terminal buttons
Imagine that prior research has suggested that neurons form the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) project to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to control eating behavior. To confirm this suggestion, your next step might be inject PHA-L into the ___ and confirm its transport to the ___.
The chemical ___ can be used to trace the paths of afferent axons
the usefulness of pseudorabies virus for histological analyses is
for the tracing of serial synaptic connections
of these techniques for visualizing living human brain, the first developed was
The technique of ___ takes advantage of the fact that ___ can alter voltage gated channels in neurons
the ___ technique is used to visualize axon bundles in living human brain
diffusor tension imaging
the ___ procedure used magnetic waves to alter brain neural activity
transcranial magnetic stimulation
peptides or proteins can be localized in the brain using
micro-dialysis is not done in humans for research purposed owing to
ethical problems because the procedure is invasive
the ___ method uses a radioactive DNA probe bound to complementary RNA to localize neurochemicals in brain
in situ hybridization
twins that share a particular trait are ___ for the trait
Which of the following is strong evidence for an environmental contribution to a behavior?
adopted children resemble their adopted families with regard to a trait
in the ___ technique, a modified strand of RNA and DNA binds with the specific molecules of mRNA, thereby preventing the protein encoded by the mRNA from being produced