Psych unit 16: Treatment

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biomedical
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The ___________ approach to reducing disorder is based on the use of medications to treat mental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety, as well as the employment of brain intervention techniques, including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and psychosurgery.
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psychological
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The ____________ approach to reducing disorder involves providing help to individuals or families through psychological therapy, including psychoanalysis, humanistic-oriented therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and other approaches.
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social
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The _______ approach to reducing disorder focuses on changing the social environment in which individuals live to reduce the underlying causes of disorder. These approaches include group, couples, and family therapy, as well as community outreach programs. The community approach is likely to be the most effective of the three approaches for reaching large groups of people because it focuses not only on treatment, but on education about disorders and prevention of their occurrence in the first place.
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psychological assessment
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An evaluation of the patient’s psychological and mental health.
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psychotherapy
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The professional treatment for psychological disorder through techniques designed to encourage communication of conflicts and insight.
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psychodynamic therapy (psychoanalysis)
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A psychological treatment based on Freudian and neo-Freudian personality theories in which the therapist helps the patient explore the unconscious dynamics of personality. The goal of this is for the patient to talk about his or her personal concerns and anxieties, usually on a couch facing away. (29%)
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the process of interpretation
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Allowing the therapist to try to understand the underlying unconscious problems that are causing the symptoms.
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free association
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The therapist listens while the client talks about whatever comes to mind, without any censorship or filtering.
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dream analysis
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To analyze the symbolism of the dreams in an effort to probe the unconscious thoughts of the client and interpret their significance.
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insight
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An understanding of the unconscious causes of the disorder.
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resistance
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Using defense mechanisms to avoid the painful feelings in his or her unconscious.
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transference
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When the patient unconsciously redirects feelings experienced in an important personal relationship toward the therapist.
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humanistic therapy
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A psychological treatment based on the personality theories of Carl Rogers and other humanistic psychologists. Based on the idea that people develop psychological problems when they are burdened by limits and expectations placed on them by themselves and others, and the treatment emphasizes the person’s capacity for self-realization and fulfillment. (6%)
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person-centered therapy (or client-centered therapy)
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An approach to treatment in which the client is helped to grow and develop as the therapist provides a comfortable, nonjudgemental environment.
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therapeutic alliance
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A relationship between the client and therapist that is facilitated when the therapist is genuine, when the therapist treats the client with unconditional positive regard, and when the therapist develops empathy for the client.
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cognitive therapy
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A psychological treatment that helps clients identify incorrect or distorted beliefs that are contributing to disorder. The therapist helps the patient develop new, healthier ways of thinking about themselves and about the others around them. The idea is that changing thoughts will change emotions, and that the new emotions will then influence behavior. (16%)
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maladaptive thoughts
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Cognitive therapy works by identifying and changing ___________________.
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behavioral therapy
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Psychological treatment that is based on principles of learning. The most direct approach is through operant conditioning using reward or punishment. (3%)
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exposure therapy
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A behavioral therapy based on the classical conditioning theory of extinction in which people are confronted with a feared stimulus with the goal of decreasing their negative emotional responses to it.
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flooding
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When a client is exposed to the source of his fear all at once.
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systematic desensitization
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A behavioral treatment that combines imagining or experiencing the feared object or situation with relaxation exercises.
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counterconditioning
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When a second incompatible response (relaxation) is conditioned to an already conditioned response (the fear response).
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virtual reality CBT
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When the therapist uses computer-generated, three-dimensional lifelike images of the feared stimulus in a systematic desensitization program.
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aversion therapy
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A type of behavioral therapy in which positive punishment is used to reduce the frequency of an undesirable behavior. An unpleasant stimulus is intentionally paired with a harmful or socially unacceptable behavior until the behavior becomes associated with unpleasant sensations and is hopefully reduced.
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cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT)
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A structured approach to treatment that attempts to reduce psychological disorders through systematic procedures based on cognitive and behavioral principles. Based on the idea that there is a recursive link among our thoughts, our feelings, and our behavior.
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eclectic therapy
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An approach to treatment in which the therapist uses whichever techniques seem most useful and relevant for a given patient. (36%)
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psychodynamic therapy
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Which type of psychotherapy places the greatest emphasis on early childhood and internal emotions and drives?
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rational-emotional therapy
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Which approach to therapy emphasizes the challenging of irrational, unrealistic beliefs?
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biomedical therapies
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Treatments designed to reduce psychological disorder by influencing the action of the central nervous system. These therapies primarily involve the use of medications but also include direct methods of brain intervention, including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT),transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and psychosurgery.
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stimulants
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What is the best type of medication used to treat ADHD?
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antidepressant medications
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Drugs designed to improve moods. Although they are used primarily in the treatment of depression, they are also effective for patients who suffer from anxiety, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Antidepressants work by influencing the production and reuptake of neurotransmitters that relate to emotion, including serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
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antianxiety medications
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Drugs that help relieve fear or anxiety. They work by increasing the action of the neurotransmitter GABA. The increased level of GABA helps inhibit the action of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, creating a calming experience.
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antipsychotic drugs
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drugs that treat the symptoms of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Some of these drugs treat the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, and some treat both the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms.
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tardive dyskinesia
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Long-term use of antipsychotics can cause permanent neurological damage and causes uncontrollable muscle movements, usually in the mouth area.
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antipsychotic medication
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Neuroleptic is another name for ________________.
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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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A medical procedure designed to alleviate psychological disorder in which electric currents are passed through the brain, deliberately triggering a brief seizure.
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transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
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A medical procedure designed to reduce psychological disorder that uses a pulsing magnetic coil to electrically stimulate the brain.
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psychosurgery
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Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in the hope of improving disorder, and is reserved for the most severe cases. The most well-known is the prefrontal lobotomy.
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group therapy
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Psychotherapy in which clients receive psychological treatment together with others. A professionally trained therapist guides the group, usually between 6 and 10 participants, to create an atmosphere of support and emotional safety for the participants.
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couples therapy
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Treatment in which two people who are cohabitating, married, or dating meet together with the practitioner to discuss their concerns and issues about their relationship.
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family therapy
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Families meeting together with a therapist.
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self-help group
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A voluntary association of people who share a common desire to overcome psychological disorder or improve their well-being.
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community mental health services
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Psychological treatments and interventions that are distributed at the community level. They are provided by nurses, psychologists, social workers, and other professionals in sites such as schools, hospitals, police stations, drug treatment clinics, and residential homes.
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primary prevention
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Prevention in which all members of the community receive the treatment.
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secondary prevention
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More limited and focuses on people who are most likely to need it—those who display risk factors for a given disorder.
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risk factors
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The social, environmental, and economic vulnerabilities that make it more likely than average that a given individual will develop a disorder.
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tertiary prevention
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Treatment, such as psychotherapy or biomedical therapy, that focuses on people who are already diagnosed with disorder.
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chronic, serious illness
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Group therapy is especially effective for individuals with ________________.
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outcome research
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Studies that assess the effectiveness of medical treatments, to determine the effectiveness of different therapies. In these studies the independent variable is the type of the treatment—for instance, whether it was psychological or biological in orientation or how long it lasted.
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natural improvement
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The possibility that people might get better over time, even without treatment.
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nonspecific treatment effects
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When the patient gets better over time simply by coming to therapy, even though it doesn’t matter what actually happens at the therapy sessions.
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placebo effects
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Improvements that occur as a result of the expectation that one will get better rather than from the actual effects of a treatment.
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meta-analysis
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A statistical technique that uses the results of existing studies to integrate and draw conclusions about those studies.
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effect size
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A measure of the effectiveness of treatment

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