Psych Quiz 7

Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating?
cognition
Telegraphic speech is most closely associated with the ___ stage of language development
two-word
An algorithm is a
methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems
A prototype is a
best example of a particular category
the smallest distinctive sound unit of language is a
phoneme
A group of people of very similar age who are participants in a longitudinal study are called a
cohort
Intelligence tests are “biased” in the sense that
test performance is influenced by cultural experiences
Spearman’s g factor refers to
a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks
The distribution of intelligence test scores in the general population forms a bell-shaped pattern. This pattern is called a
a normal curve
The belief that intelligence in changeable facilitates
a growth mind-set
In the process of classifying objects, people are especially likely to make use of
prototypes
A 100$ coat marked down from 150$ can seem like a better deal than the same coat regularly pried at 100$. This best illustrates the importance of
framing
Chimpanzee B watches Chimpanzee A obtain food either by sliding ot by lifting a door. Chimpanzee B will then typically do the same to get food. And so will Chimpanzee C after observing Chimpanzee B. This sequence has been said to illustrate
cultural transmission
Semantics refers to the
rules by which we derive meaning from sounds
Language refers to the
spoken, written, or signed words and the ways they are combined to communicate meaning
Women scoring in the highest 25 percent on the Scottish national intelligence test at age 11 tended to ___ than those who scored in the lowest 25 percent.
live longer
Among Americans scoring in the top 1 in 10,000 on the ___ at age 12 or 13, more than half have earned doctorates
SAT
For the original version of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was defined as
mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 10
In 8 to 10 seconds, the late memory whiz Kim Peek could read and remember the contents of a book page. Yet, he had little capacity for understanding abstract concepts. Kim’s mental capacities best illustrates
savant syndrome
Energetic persistence in the pursuit of challenging goals is most clearly an indication of
grit
The isolated Piraha tribespeople of Brazil have no words for specific numbers higher than 2. If shown 7 nuts in a row they find it difficult to lay out the same number from their own pile of nuts. This best illustrates the impact of
language on thinking
Research findings suggest that the best advice to give people who want to avoid belief perseverance is
“consider the opposite”
The heritability of intelligence is lowest among
generally similar individuals who have been raised in different environments
Academic aptitude test scores are MOST likely to predict accurately the academic success of ___ students
elementary school
Who attempted to assess intellectual strengths by measuring muscular power, sensory acuity, and body proportions?
Francis Galton
Professor Pegler’s research efforts focus on how the use of heuristics influences the way people assess the financial risks. Which specialty area does his research best represent?
cognitive psychology
After Miguel’s recent automobile accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Broca’s area. It is likely that Miguel will have difficulty
speaking fluently
The various vowel sounds that can be placed between a “t” and an “n” produce words such as tan, ten, tin, and ton. These various vowel sounds represent different
phonemes
As he attempted to spell the word receive, Tim reminded himself “i before e except after c.” Tim’s self reminder best illustrates the use of
a heuristic
A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of
an algorithm
It has been suggested that Alaskan Eskimos’ rich vocabulary for describing snow enables them to perceive differences in snow conditions that would otherwise go unnoticed. This suggestion most clearly illustrates
linguistic determination
The risks of smoking are more alarming when presented in terms of the number of smokers with lung cancer than the percentage of smokers with lung cancer. This illustrates the importance of
framing
Melinda completed the Computer Programming Aptitude Test when she applied for a position with Beta Electronics. Six months later, she took the same test when she applied for a position with another company. The fact that her scores were almost identical on the two occasions suggests that the test has a high degree of
reliability
Jada began to read when she was 4 years old. Based on this information, what can we predict about her performance on the college aptitude test she will take as an eighth grader?
she will score considerably higher than most high school seniors
Shannon believes intelligence is a product of an interaction between genes and environmental influences. Shannon’s position is consistent with
epigenetics
Your psychology professor has announced that the next test will assess your understanding of sensation and perception. When you receive the test, however, you find that very few questions actually relate to those topics. In this instance, you would be most concerned about the ___ of the test.
content validity
A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a ___ level of reliability and a ___ level of validity
high; low
When completing a verbal aptitude test, members of an ethnic minority group are particularly likely to perform below their true ability levels if they believe that the test
is biased against members of their own ethnic group
Jim, age 55, plays basketball with much younger adults and is concerned that his teammates might consider his age to be a detriment to their game outcome. His concern actually undermines his athletic performance. This best illustrates the impact of
stereotype threat
The test Vincente is taking included questions such as “In what way are brass and steel alike?” Vincente is taking the
WAIS