Psych "Quick Quiz" Chapter 1

How did physiology contribute to the emergence of psychology as a separate scientific discipline?
Physiologists demonstrated that scientific methods could be applied to understanding human behavior and mental processes.

The factor or variable other than the ones being studied that, if not controlled, could affect the outcome of an experiment is the:
extraneous variable.

In general, critical thinking refers to the practice of:
actively questioning statements rather than blindly accepting them.

Which of the following statements does the Chapter 1 ‘Focus on Neuroscience’ feature NOT mention as a potential limitation of brain imaging studies?
Because the participants in the brain-imaging studies usually have some type of brain damage, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the functioning of the healthy, intact human brain.

Which of the following phrases would be an acceptable operational definition for anxiety?
asking people to rate their current level of anxiety on a 1-to-10 scale

The results of the Crum and Langer hotel experiment were that:
those who perceived housekeeping work as exercise (informed group) reported higher levels of fatigue than the uninformed group.

Scientific research into the effects of magnet therapy has demonstrated that:
static magnets are more effective in relieving pain and other ailments than transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Who was the first woman to be elected president of the American Psychological Association?
Mary Whiton Calkins

In Crum and Langer’s hotel experiment, the:
hotels were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control condition, thus ensuring that all participants at a given hotel were in the same group.

A perfect positive correlation:
is statistically impossible.

Like other scientists, psychologists are guided by the assumption that:
events are lawful and ultimately explainable.

Juanita participated in a psychology research project that involved solving a number of arithmetic problems. During the experiment, she was informed that her solutions were incorrect. After the experiment was completed, a research assistant explained the purpose of the experiment. He told Juanita that she had actually answered all items correctly, and then explained why the experiment required that she be told that her answers were wrong. This stage of the research represents:
debriefing

Researchers who were interested in the effects of alcohol consumption on perceived attractiveness of members of the opposite sex randomly assigned participants to two groups. Each participant in the first group received a fruit flavored drink containing a set amount of alcohol and those in the second group received an identical tasting drink with no alcohol. Next, the participants viewed pictures of members of the opposite sex and rated their attractiveness on a scale of 1 to 10. Why did the researchers include a group that drank a nonalcoholic beverage that tasted identical to the alcoholic beverage?
to examine expectancy effects

People who engage in critical thinking:
are open to new ideas, yet maintain a sense of skepticism.

Interactive dualism is the idea that:
mind and body are separate entities that interact to produce conscious experiences.

Wilhelm Wundt defined psychology as the study of consciousness and emphasized the use of experimental methods to study and measure consciousness.
true

Random assignment helps ensure that potential differences among participants are spread out across all experimental conditions.
true

In an experiment, the independent variable is the purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in the dependent variable.
true

Educational psychology is a specialty area that investigates research focused on basic psychological topics such as sensory and perceptual processes, learning, emotion, and motivation.
false

Abraham Maslow, a humanistic psychologist, developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth.
true

Which school of psychology would agree that “psychology should stress the study of how behavior and mental processes allow people and animals to adapt to their environments”?
funtionalism

Founder of Psychoanaliysis:
Austrian physician Sigmund Freud

The participants assigned to the control group or condition in Crum and Langer’s hotel experiment were:
not informed that their housekeeping work was beneficial exercise

Which of the following statements best characterizes the principle of natural selection?
organisms that inherit characteristic that increase their chances of survival in their particular habitat are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pa on their characteristics to their offspring

Which of the following is a definition of the experimental method?
research method used to determine a cause-and-effect relationship between changes in one variable and the effect that is produced on another variable

Which of the following statements is an important advantage of surveys?
Researchers are able to gather information about a very large group of people based on a representative sample of that group.

As you flip through the television channels, you come across the “Psychic Circle,” which advertises “psychics” who use “scientifically proven methods” to see the future. This is an example of:
a pseudoscientific claim.

Researchers who were interested in the effects of alcohol consumption on perceived attractiveness of members of the opposite sex randomly assigned participants to two groups. Each participant in the first group received a fruit flavored drink containing a set amount of alcohol and those in the second group received an identical tasting drink with no alcohol. Next, the participants viewed pictures of members of the opposite sex and rated their attractiveness on a scale of 1 to 10. Why did the experimenters include a group that received nonalcoholic drinks?
to serve as a baseline for comparison against the experimental group

In contrast to collectivistic cultures, individualistic cultures tend to:
value the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group.

Psuedo means:
fake or false

In the Crum and Langer hotel experiment, the participants were selected:
from the housekeeping staff at seven carefully matched hotels

After the dictatorship ended in Slobonia, many children were found in state-run orphanages where they had been badly treated and often neglected. These children were placed for adoption and researchers followed their progress over a number of years, measuring psychological and physical indicators of well-being. This type of research is called:
a natural experiment

Case studies:
are commonly used by clinical psychologists and other mental health professionals to develop a complete profile of a psychotherapy client

Norms of social behavior are virtually identical in all developed countries.
false

Some limitations of brain-imaging studies discussed in the Focus on Neuroscience feature in Chapter 1 include the fact that they typically involve a small number of participants and that they tend to focus on simple aspects of behavior.
true

A hypothesis is to a question as a theory is to a model.
true

Many cultures are neither completely individualistic nor completely collectivistic, but fall somewhere between the two extremes.
true

Evolutionary psychologists emphasize the study of the physical bases of human and animal behavior, including the nervous system, endocrine system, immune system, and genetics.
false

The early psychological school called structuralism emphasized the study of:
the elemental components of sensations, feelings, and conscious experience.

The hypothesis in the Crum and Langer hotel experiment was that:
changing a person’s beliefs and perceptions about the exercise benefits of a particular activity would result in actual health benefits.

Anecdotal evidence:
consists of telling personal stories to support a particular claim.

Using statistics, Dr. Hazlett determined that the result of her experiment was statistically significant. Dr. Hazlett then concluded that the:
results of the experiment were not likely to have occurred by chance.

Psychology is formally defined as the scientific:
study of behavior and mental processes.

Dr. Professor has used a relatively new technique called the fMRI scan to examine changes in the brain that occur with age. Dr. Professor most likely subscribes to the _____ perspective of psychology.
biological

Which of the following approaches was referred to as the “third force” in American psychology?
humanistic psychology

Humanistic psychology was called the “third force” because it:
provided an alternative viewpoint to the two approaches that were dominant at the time, behaviorism and psychoanalysis.

_____ psychology is most interested in examining individual differences and the characteristics that make each person unique.
Personality

A correlational study:
examines how strongly two variables are related to one another.

In one natural experiment investigating weight gain during the first year of college, it was found that:
female students who were assigned to dormitories with on-site dining facilities gained more weight and exercised less than students who were assigned to dormitories without food services.

Dr. Jackson is interested in how stress affects the brain and examines PET scans of individuals before and after stressful situations. Dr. Jackson’s approach is part of the _____ perspective.
biological

Francis C. Sumner was the first African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology.
true

A hypothesis is a tentative explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship among various findings and observations.
false

Even if two factors are very strongly correlated, correlation does NOT necessarily indicate causality.
true

In Crum and Langer’s hotel experiment, responses to questionnaires about exercise and diet and measures of physical health constituted the dependent variable.
true

The independent variable in Crum and Langer’s hotel experiment was being informed that housekeeping work was unhealthy and contributed to health problems.
false

The ethical requirement of informed consent means that:
participants must be completely informed about the purpose and conditions of the research, and must be free to withdraw from the research at any time.

One potential problem with surveys and questionnaires is that:
people may misrepresent their personal characteristics or lie in their responses.

The founder of psychoanalysis was:
Austrian physician Sigmund Freud.

Researchers interested in how sleep deprivation affected performance randomly assigned participants to groups that had one, two, or three nights of sleep deprivation. Then they tested subjects’ reaction times on a standard motor reaction task. The dependent variable in this experiment was:
the reaction times of the three groups on the standard motor reaction task.

Researchers who tested whether ginkgo biloba improves memory and concentration were careful to control changes caused by other influences so they could be confident that the _____ could be attributed to the treatment variable.
main effect

Structuralism:
was based on the idea that even our most complex conscious experiences could be broken down into basic mental “structures” of sensations and feelings.

Researchers who were interested in the effects of alcohol consumption on perceived attractiveness of members of the opposite sex randomly assigned participants to two groups. Each participant in the first group received a fruit flavored drink containing a set amount of alcohol and those in the second group received an identical tasting drink with no alcohol. Next, the participants viewed pictures of members of the opposite sex and rated their attractiveness on a scale of 1 to 10. Which of the following is an operational definition of perceived attractiveness?
participants’ rating on a 1-to-10 scale in response to questions about the attractiveness of members of the opposite sex

A pseudoscience is a:
fake or false science that is based on little or no scientific evidence.

During the 1960s, the movement away from traditional behaviorism and toward the study of how mental processes influence behavior was called:
“the cognitive revolution” and was influenced by the development of the first computers.

Researchers were interested in the effects of alcohol consumption on the perceived attractiveness of members of the opposite sex. One group of participants was given four drinks containing alcohol, and another group was given no drinks at all. Next, both groups of participants rated the attractiveness of members of the opposite sex by viewing pictures and rating attractiveness on a 1-to-10 scale. Which group was the control group?
the group that was given no drinks

The results of the Crum and Langer hotel experiment were that:
the informed group participants showed significant improvements in all physical health measures except diastolic blood pressure.

Dr. Mason and Dr. Jacobson both work in Minnesota in different cities. They both treat people with severe mental disorders. Dr. Mason cannot prescribe medications for his patients, but Dr. Jacobson frequently prescribes medications. Dr. Mason is probably a _____, whereas Dr. Jacobson is probably a(n) _____.
clinical psychologist; psychiatrist

You and your co-researchers want to compare the brain structures of musically gifted young adolescents with those of a closely matched control group of normal, nonmusical adolescents using a noninvasive technique. You and your colleagues are conducting a(n) _____ brain imaging study, and will use _____ to study the details of the brain structures.
descriptive; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

The basic goal of the experimental method is to:
demonstrate that one variable causes change in a second variable.

According to Freud, glimpses of unconscious impulses were revealed in everyday life in dreams, memory blocks, and slips of the tongue.
true

Psychologists’ open-minded attitude is tempered by a healthy sense of realism, which is guided by the assumption that many events are not explainable, including human behavior and mental processes.
false

Of the nearly 6,000 people who participated in the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), which is a survey on sexual behaviors, each was randomly selected from the entire U.S. population.
true

Replication of research findings increases confidence in the accuracy of the findings.
true

The results of Crum and Langer’s hotel experiment:
had little impact because the statistical analysis was flawed.

Dr. Woods is studying the degree to which primates seem to display logic and insight in figuring out a variety of puzzles and other simple problems. Dr. Woods is most likely a(n) _____ psychologist.
cognitive

The purpose of using a placebo control group in an experiment is often to:
control for expectancy effects.

Which of the following statements is an important advantage of surveys?
Researchers are able to gather information about a very large group of people based on a representative sample of that group.

A hypothesis is:
a tentative statement that describes the relationship between two or more variables.

To ensure that participants are responding honestly and consistently, survey researchers:
sometimes rephrase the question and ask for the same information in a different way at different points in the survey.

“What are the most basic units or structures of consciousness?” This is a question that would most likely be of interest to a follower of:
structuralism

The evolutionary perspective in psychology:
analyzes behavior in terms of its adaptive function, such as how it increases a species’ chances to survive and reproduce.

Deception in psychology experiments:
is still allowed when it is not feasible to use alternatives that do not involve deception, and when the potential findings justify its use because of the scientific, educational, or applied value.

Professor Anderson is interested in how family relationships change over time. During the last two decades, he has kept track of and repeatedly surveyed the same group of 3,000 participants about changes in their relationships with their parents and siblings. Professor Anderson is most likely a _____ psychologist.
developmental

A theory:
integrates and summarizes diverse findings on the same topic.

“My goal is to discover how behavior is acquired and modified in response to environmental influences.” Of the following individuals, who is most likely to have made such a statement?
John B. Watson

Why was Mary Whiton Calkins denied the Ph.D. degree she had earned in her graduate studies of psychology at Harvard University?
She was a woman, and at the time Harvard was not a coeducational institution.

After attending a series of lectures by Freud at Clark University in 1909, _____ described Freud as “a man obsessed with fixed ideas.”
William James

When a student participates as a research subject to fulfill a course requirement, the student must be given a choice of an alternative activity to fulfill the course requirement.
true

According to the evolutionary perspective, psychological processes that were adaptations to a prehistoric way of life may continue to exist in the human behavioral repertoire today.
true

A representative sample very closely matches the population from which it is drawn.
true

Harvard University refused to award Mary Whiton Calkins her Ph.D. in psychology because she was a woman and at that time Harvard was not a coeducational institution.
true

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