Psych Exam 1 (chps 1-3)

Psychological science seeks to answer questions about how people…
think
feel
act

The Greek philosopher Aristotle developed early theories about…
learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception, personality

The first psychological laboratory was founded in 1879 by Wilhelm ____. His student, ____, introduced the school of ____ which explored the basic elements of mind using the method of ____. This method proved ____.
Wundt
Edward Titchener
structuralism
inspection
unreliable

Under the influence of evolutionary theorist Darwin, psychologist _______ assumed that thinking developed because it was ________. He founded the school of _______, which focused on how mental and behavioral processes enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
James
adaptive
functionalism

The first female president of the American Psychological Association was ______.
The first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology was _____.
Mary Calkins
Margaret Floy Washburn

The historical roots of psychology include the fields of _____ and ____.
biology
philosophy

Some early psychologists include Ivan Pavlov, who pioneered the study of ____; the personality theorist ____; and Jean Piaget, who studied ____.
learning
Sigmund Freud
children

In its earliest years, psychology was defined as the science of ____ life. From the 1920s into the 1960s, psychology in America was redefined as the science of ____ behavior.
mental
observable

As a response to Freudian psychology and to ____, which they considered too mechanistic, pioneers ____ and _____ forged ____ psychology. This new perspective emphasized the ____ potential of ____ people.
behaviorism
Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow
humanistic
growth
healthy

During the 1960s, psychology underwent a ____ revolution as it began to recapture interest in how our ____ processes and retains information. The study of brain activity linked with mental activity is called ____ ____.
cognitive
mind
cognitive neuroscience

The text author defines psychology as the scientific study of ____ and ____ processes.
behavior
mental

In this definition, “behavior” refers to any action that we can ____ and ____, and “mental processes” refers to the internal, ____ ____ we ____ from behavior.
observe
record
subjective experiences
infer

As a science, psychology is less a set of findings than a way of _______________.
asking and answering questions

Worldwide, the number of psychologists is ____. Thanks to international publications and meetings, psychological science is also ____.
increasing
globalizing

The nature-nurture issue is the controversy over the relative contributions of ____ and _____.
biology
experience

The Greek philosopher who assumed that character and intelligence are inherited is ____. The Greek philosopher who argued that all knowledge comes from the sensory experience is ____.
Plato
Aristotle

In the 1600s, the views of the Greek philosophers were revived by _____, who believed that most knowledge comes in through the senses, and ____, who believed that some ideas are innate.
Locke
Descartes

In 1859, naturalist ____ explained species variation by proposing the process of ____, which works through the principle of ____ ____.
Charles Darwin
evolution
natural selection

Although the debate continues, we will see that ____ works on what ____ endows and that every ____ event is simultaneously a ____ event.
nurture
nature
psychological
biological

Each person is a complex ____ that is part of a larger ____ ____ and at the same time composed of smaller systems. For this reason, psychologists work from three main ____ of ____–biological, ____, and ____-____– which together form an integrated ____ approach to the study of behavior and mental processes.
system
social system
levels
analysis
psychological
social-cultural
biopsychosocial

Psychologists who study how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences are working form the ____ perspective.
neuroscience

Psychologist who study how natural selection influences behavior tendencies are working from the ____ perspective, whereas those concerned with the relative influences of genes and environment on individual differences are working from the ____ ____ perspective.
evolutionary
behavior genetics

Psychologist who believe that behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts are working from the ___ perspective.
psychodynamic

Psychologist who study the mechanisms by which observable responses are acquired and changed are working from the ____ perspective.
behavioral

The ____ perspective explores how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information.
cognitive

Psychologists who study how thinking and behavior vary in different situations are working from the ____-____ perspective.
social-cultural

The different perspectives on the big issues ____ one another.
complement

Psychologists may be involved in conducting ____ ____, which builds psychology’s knowledge base, or ___ ____, which seeks solutions to practical problems.
basic research
applied research

Psychologist who help people cope with problems in living are called ____ psychologists. Psychologists who study, assess, and treat troubled people are called ____ psychologists.
counseling
clinical

Medical doctors who provide psychotherapy and treat physical causes of psychological disorders are called ____.
psychiatrists

In its earliest days, psychology was defined as the ____
science of mental life

Who would be the most likely to agree with the statement, “Psychology should investigate only behaviors that can be observed”?
John B Watson

Today, psychology is defined as the ____
science of behavior and mental processes

Who introduced the early school of structuralism?
Edward Titchener

Who wrote the early textbook Principles of Psychology?
William James

Psychologists who study the degree to which genes influence our personality are working from the ____ perspective.
behavior genetics

What exemplifies the issue of the relative importance of nature and nurture on our behavior?
the issue of the relative influence of biology and experience on behavior

The 17th century philosopher who believed that the mind is blank at birth and that most knowledge comes through sensory experience is ____
Locke

Which 17th century philosopher believed that some ideas are innate?
Descartes

Which psychological perspective emphasizes the interaction of the brain and body in behavior?
neuroscience

A psychologist who explores how Asian and North American definitions of attractiveness differ is working from the ____ perspective.
social cultural

A psychologist who conducts experiments solely intended to build psychology’s knowledge base is engaged in ____.
basic research

Psychologists who study, assess, and treat troubled people are called ____.
clinical psychologists

Today, psychology is a discipline that ____.
connects with a diversity of other fields

In order, the sequence of steps in the SQ3R method is ____
survey, question, read, review, reflect

Psychologists who study how brain activity is linked to memory, perception, and other thought processes are called ____.
cognitive neuroscientists

Neuroscience perspective
how the body and brain create emotions, memories, and sensations

Social-cultural perspective
how people differ as products of different envrionments

Psychiatry
the medical treatment of psychological disorders

Clinical Psychology
the study, assessment, and treatment of troubled people

Behavior Genetics Perspective
how much genes and environment contribute to individual differences

Behavioral Perspective
the mechanisms by which observable responses are acquired and changed

Industrial/organizational psychology
behavior in the workplace

Cognitive perspective
how we encode, process, store and retrieve information

Basic research
adds to a psychology’s knowledge base

Applied research
the study of practical problems

Evolutionary perspective
how natural selection favors traits that promote the perpetuation of one’s genes

Psychodynamic perspective
the disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas

Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the contents of the mind

Functionalism
an early school of psychology that focused on the adaptive value of thoughts and behaviors

Behavioralism
the view that psychology should be an objective science that avoids reference to mental processes

Cognitive Neuroscience
brain activity linked with perception, thinking, memory, and language

The tendency to perceive an outcome that has occurred as being obvious and predictable is called the ____ ____. This phenomenon is ____ in ____.
hindsight bias
common
both children and adults

Our everyday thinking is also limited by ____ in what we think we know.
overconfidence

Most people are ____ in predicting their social behavior.
equally wrong

The scientific approach is characterized by the attitudes of ____, ____, and ____.
curiosity
skepticism
humility

Scientific inquiry thus encourages reasoning that examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions, which is called ________.
critical thinking

Psychological science uses the ____ ____ to evaluate competing ideas. They make careful ____ and form ____, which are ____ based on new ____.
scientific method
observations
theories
revised
observations

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predict behaviors or events is a ____. Testable predictions that allow a scientist to evaluate a theory are called ____. These predictions give direction to _____.
theory
hypotheses
research

In order to prevent theoretical biases from influencing scientific observations, research must be reported precisely–using clear ___ ___ of all concepts–so that others can ____ the findings.
operational definitions
replicate

The test of a useful theory is the extent to which it effectively ____ a range of self-reports and observations and implies clear _____.
organizes
predictions

Psychologists conduct research using ____, ____, and ____ methods.
descriptives
correlational
experimental

The research strategy in which one or more individuals is studied in depth in order to reveal universal principles of behavior is the ___ ____.
case study

Although case studies can suggest ____ for further study, a potential problem with this method is that any given individual may be ____.
hypotheses
atypical

The method in which a group of people is questioned about their attitudes or behavior is a _____.
survey

We are more likely to overgeneralize from select samples that are especially ____.
vivid

Surveys try to obtain a ____ sample, one that will be representative of the ____ being studied. In such a sample, every person ____ have a chance of being included.
random
population
does

Large, representative samples ____ better than small ones.
are

The research method in which people or animals are directly observed in their natural environments is called ____ ____.
naturalistic observation

Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation do not explain behavior; they simply ____ it.
describe

Using naturalistic observation, researchers have found that people are more likely to laugh in ____ situations than in ____ situations. Also using observations of walking speed and the accuracy of public clocks, researchers have concluded that the pace of life ____ from one culture to another.
social
solitary
varies

When changes in one factor are accompanied by changes in another, the 2 factors are said to be ____, and one is thus able to ___ the other. The statistical expression of this relationship is called a ____ ____. A graphical representation of this relationship is called a ____.
correlated
predict
correlation coefficient
scatter plot

If 2 factors increase or decrease together, they are ____ ____. If, however, one decreases as the other increases, they are ____ ____. Another way to state the latter is that the 2 variables relate ____.
positively correlated
negatively correlated
inversely

A negative correlation between 2 variables does not indicate the ____ or ____ of the relationship. Nor does correlation prove ____; rather, it merely indicates the possibility of a ____-____ relationship.
strength
weakness
causation
cause-effect

A correlation between 2 events or behaviors means only that one event can be ____ from the other.
predicted

Because two events may both be caused by some other ___, a correlation does not mean that one ____ the other. For this reason, correlation thus does not enable ____.
event
caused
explanation

A perceived correlation that does not really exist is an ___.
illusory correlation

People are more likely to notice and recall events that ____ their beliefs. This error in thinking helps explain many ___ beliefs.
confirm
superstitious

Another common tendency is to perceive order in _____.
random events

Patterns and streaks in random sequences occur ____ often than people expect, and they ____ appear random.
more
do not

To isolate ___ and ____, researchers ____ control for other ____.
cause
effect
statistically
factors

Research studies have found that breast fed infants ____ grow up with higher intelligence scores than those of infants who are bottle-fed with cows milk. To study cause-effect relationships, psychologists conduct ____. Using this method and ____ assigning participants to groups, a researcher ____ the factor of interest while ____ (controlling) other factors.
do
experiments
randomly
manipulates
holding constant

If a ___ changes when an ___ factor is varied, the researcher knows the factor is having an _____.
behavior
experimental
effect

When neither the participants nor the person collecting data knows which condition a participant is in, the researcher is making use of the ____-____ procedure.
double blind

Researchers sometimes give certain participants a pseudo treatment, called a ____, and compare their behavior with that of participants who receive the actual treatment. When merely thinking that one is receiving a treatment produces results, a ___ is said to occur.
placebo
placebo effect

An experiment must involve at least 2 conditions: the ____ condition, in which the experimental treatment is present, and the ___ condition, in which it is absent.
experimental
control

To ensure that the 2 groups are identical, experimenters rely on the ___ ___ of individuals to the experimental conditions.
random assignment

The factor that is being manipulated in an experiment is called the ____ variable. The measurable factor that may change as a result for these manipulations is called the ___ variable.
independent
dependent

The aim of an experiment is to ____ a ___ variable, measure the ____ variable, and ___ all the other variables
manipulate
independent
dependent
control

Researchers use ___ to help them see and interpret their observations.
statistics

Once researchers have gathered their ___, they must ___ them. One simple way of visually representing data is to use a ___. It is important to read the ___ and note the ___ to avoid being misled by misrepresented data.
data
organize
bar graph
scale labels
range

The three measures of central tendency are the ___, the ____, and the ___.
mode
median
mean

The most frequently occurring score in a distribution is called the ___.
mode

The mean is computed as the ___ of all the scores divided by the ___ of scores.
total sum
number

The median is the score at the ___ percentile.
50th

When a distribution is lopsided, or ___, the ____ can be biased by a few extreme scores.
skewed
mean

Averages derived from scores with ___ variability are more reliable than those with ___ variability.
low
high

The measures of variation include the ___ and the ___.
range
standard deviation

The range is computed as the ___.
difference between the lowest and highest scores

The range provides a ___ estimate of variation because it ___ influenced by extreme scores.
crude
is

The standard deviation is a ___ measure of variation than the range. Unlike the range, the standard deviation ___ use information from each score in the distribution.
more accurate
does

The symmetrical bell shaped distribution in which most scores fall near the ___ with fewer and fewer near the extremes is called the ___.
mean
normal curve (normal distribution)

Is is safer to generalize from a ___ sample than from a ___ sample.
representative
biased

Averages are more reliable when they are based on scores with ___ variability.
low

Small samples provide a ___ reliable basis for generalizing than large samples.
less

Tests of statistical ___ are used to estimate whether observed differences are real–that is, to make sure that they are not simply the result of ___ variation. The differences are probably real if the sample averages are ___ and the difference between them is ___.
significance
chance
reliable
relatively large

Statistical signifigance does not necessarily indicate the importance or ___ signifigance of a difference or result.
practical

In laboratory experiments, psychologists’ concern is not with specific behaviors but with the underlying theoretical ___.
principles

Psychologists conduct experiments on simplified behaviors in a laboratory environment to gain ___ over the many variables present in the “real world” In doing so, they are able to test ___ of behavior that also operate in the real world.
control
general principles

Culture refers to the enduring ___, ___, ___, and___ shared by a large group of people and passed on from one generation to the next.
ideas
behaviors
attitudes
traditions

Although specific attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures, they underlying ___ are the same. For instance, throughout the world people are diagnosed with ___ exhibit the same malfunction. Likewise similarities between the ___ far outweigh differences.
processes
dyslexia
brain
genders

Many psychologists study animals because they are fascinating. More important, they study animals because of the ____ between humans and other animals. These studies have led to treatments for human ___ and to a better understanding of human functioning.
similarities
diseases

Some people question whether experiments with animals are ___. They wonder whether it is right to place the ___ of humans over those animals.
ethical
well being

Opposition to animal experimentation also raises the question of what ___ should protect the well-being of animals.
safeguards

Psychologists’ values ___ influence their theories, observations, and professional advice.
do

Although psychology ___ be used to manipulate people, its purpose is to ___.
can
enlighten

culture
shared ideas and behaviors passed from one generation to the next

median
the middle score in a distribution

placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone

hindsight bias
“I knew it all along” phenomenon

mode
the most frequently occurring score

range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores

standard deviation
a measure of variation based on every score

scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots depicting the values of two variables

mean
the arithmetic average of a set of scores

measures of central tendency
the mean, median, and mode

measures of variation
the range and standard deviation

critical thinking
reasoning that does not blindly accept arguments

illusory correlation
false perception of a relationship between two variables

hypothesis
testable proposition

theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

independent variable
the variable being manipulated in an experiment

dependent variable
the variable being measured in an experiment

experimental group
the “treatment-present” group in an experiment

control group
the “treatment-absent” group in an experiment

case study
an in-depth observational study of one person

survey
the research strategy in which the effects of one or more variables on behavior are tested

replication
repeating an experiment to see whether the same results are obtained

random assignment
the process in which research participants are selected by chance for different groups in an experiment

experiment
the research strategy in which a representative sample of individuals is questioned

double-blind
experimental procedure in which neither the research participant nor the experiment knows which condition the participant is in

In the most basic sense, every idea, mood, memory and behavior that an individual has ever experienced is a ___ phenomenon.
biological

The theory that linked our mental abilities to bumps on the skull was ___.
phrenology

Researchers who study the links between biology and behavior are called ___.
biological psychologists

We are made up of smaller and smaller ___; we are also part of larger ___. Thus we are ___ systems.
subsystems
systems
biopsychosocial

Our body’s neural system is built from billions of nerve cells or ____. Information arriving in the brain and spinal chord from the body travels in ___ neurons. Instructions from the brain and spinal chord are sent to the body’s tissues via ___ neurons. The neurons that enable internal communication within the brain are called ___.
neurons
sensory
motor
internuerons

The extensions of a neuron that receive messages from other neurons are the ___.
dendrites

The extension of a neuron that transmits information to other neurons is the ___; some of these extensions are insulated by a fatty tissue called the ____, which helps speed the neuron’s impulses.
axon
myelin sheaths

The neural impulse, or ___ is a brief electrical charge that travels down a ___.
action potential
axon

The fluid interior of a resting axon carries mostly ___ charged ions, while the fluid outside has mostly ___ charged ions. This polarization, called the ____, occurs because the cell membrane is ___.
negatively
positively
resting potential
positively

An action potential occurs when the first part of the axon opens its gates and ___ charged ions rush in, causing the part of the neuron to become ___. During the resting pause following an action potential, called the ___, the neuron pumps ___ charged ions back outside the cell.
positively
depolarized
refractory period
positively

To trigger a neural impulse, ___ signals minus ___ signals must exceed a certain intensity, called the ___. Increasing stimulus above this level ___ increase the neural impulse’s intensity. This phenomenon is called an ___-___-___ response.
excitatory
inhibitory
threshold
will
all-or-none

The strength of a stimulus ___ affect the intensity of a neural impulse. A strong stimulus ___ trigger more neurons to fire.
does not
can

The junction between two neurons is called a ___, and the gap is called the ____. This discovery was made by ___.
synapse
synaptic cleft
Sir Charles Sherrington

The chemical messengers that convey information across the gaps between neurons are called ___. These chemicals bind to receptor sites and unlock tiny channels, allowing electrically charged ___ to enter the neuron.
neurotransmitters
atoms

Neurotransmitters influence neurons either by ___ or ___ their readiness to fire. Excess neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the sending neuron in a process called ___.
exciting
inhibiting
reuptake

A neurotransmitter that is important in muscle contraction is ___; it is also important in learning and ___.
acetylcholine (ACh)
memory

Naturally occurring opiate like neurotransmitters that are present in the brain are called ___. When the brain is flooded with drugs such as ___ or ___, it may stop producing these neurotransmitters.
endorphins
heroin
morphine

Drugs that produce their effects by mimicking neurotransmitters are called ____. Drugs that block the effects of neurotransmitters by occupying their ___ are called ___. While certain ___ drugs create a temporary “high” by mimicking the endorphins, the poison ___ produces paralysis by blocking the activity of the neurotransmitter ACh.
agonists
receptor sites
antagonists
opiate
curare

Taken altogether, the neurons of the body form the ___.
nervous system

The brain and spinal chord form the ___ nervous system. The neurons that link the brain and spinal chord to the body’s sense receptors, muscles, and glands form the ___ nervous system.
central
peripheral

Sensory and motor axons are bundled into electrical cables called ___.
nerves

The division of the peripheral nervous system that enables voluntary control of the skeletal muscles is the ___ system.
somatic

Involuntary self regulating responses–those the glands and muscles of internal organs–are controlled by the ___ nervous system.
autonomic

The body is made ready for action by the ___ division of the ANS.
sympathetic

The ___ division of the ANS produces relaxation.
parasympathetic

Neurons that cluster into work groups are called ___.
neural networks

Automatic responses to stimuli, called ___, illustrate the work of the ___. Simple pathways such as these are involved in the ___-___ response and in the ___ reflex.
reflexes
spinal chord
knee jerk
pain

The body’s chemical communication network is called the ___. This system transmits through chemical messengers called ___ at a much ___ rate than the nervous system and its effects last ____.
endocrine system
hormones
slower
a longer time

In a moment of danger, the ANS system orders the ___ glands to release ___ and ___.
adrenal
epinephrine
norepinehphrine

The most influential gland is the ___, which under the control of an adjacent brain area called the ___, helps regulate ___ and the release of hormones by other endocrine glands.
pituitary
hypothalamus
growth

Researchers sometimes study brain function by producing ___ or by selectively destroying brain cells. The oldest technique for studying the brain involves ___ of patients with brain injuries or diseases.
lesions
clinical observation

The ___ is an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface.
eclectroencephalogram (EEG)

The technique depicting the level of activity of brain areas by measuring the brain’s consumption of glucose is called the ___.
PET scan

A technique that produces clearer images of the brain and other body parts by using magnetic fields and radio waves is known as ___.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

By comparing scans taken less than a second apart, the ___ detects oxygen laden blood flow to the part of the brain thought to control the bodily activity being studied. Using this technique, researchers found that blood flow to the back of the brain ___ when people view a scene because that is where ___ information is processed.
functional MRI
increases
visual

The oldest and innermost region of the brain is the ___.
brainstem

At the the base of the brainstem where the spinal chord enters the skull lies the ___, which controls ___ and ___. Just above this part is the ___ which helps coordinate movements.
medulla
breathing
heartbeat
pons

Nerves from each side of the brain cross over to connect with the body’s opposite side in the ___.
brainstem

The finger shaped network of neurons the ___ is contained inside the brainstem and plays an important role in controlling ___. Electrically stimulating this area will produce an ___ animal. Lesioning this area will cause an animal to lapse into a ___.
reticular formation
arousal
alert (awake)
coma

At the top of the brainstem sits the ___, which serves as the brain’s sensory switchboard, receiving information from all senses except ___ and routing it to the regions dealing with those senses. These egg shaped structures also receive replies from the higher regions which they direct to the ___ and to the ___.
thalamus
smell
medulla
cerebellum

At the rear of the brainstem lies the ___. It influences one type of ___ and memory. It also coordinates voluntary movement and ___ control.
cerebellum
nonverbal learning
balance

The lower brain functions occur without ___ effort, indicating that our brain process most information ___ of our awareness.
conscious
outside

Between the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres is the ___ system. One component of this system that processes memory is the ___.
limbic
hippocampus

Aggression or fear will result from stimulation of different regions of the lima bean-sized neural clusters, the ___.
amygdala

We must remember however that the brain ___ neatly organized into structures that correspond to our categories of behavior. For example, aggressive behavior ___ involve neural activity in many brain levels.
is not
does

Below the thalamus is the ___ which regulates bodily maintenance behaviors such as ___, ___, ___, and ___ behavior. This also regulates behavior by secreting ___ that enable it to control the ___ gland. Olds and Milner discovered that this region also contains ___ centers, which animals will work hard to have stimulated.
hypothalamus
hunger
thirst
body temperature
sexual
hormones
pituitary
reward

Some researchers believe that alcohol dependence, drug abuse, binge eating, and other ___ disorders may stem from a genetic ___ in the natural brain systems for pleasure and well being.
addictive
reward deficiency syndrome

The most complex functions of human behavior are linked to the most developed part of the brain, the ___ . This thin layer of interconnected neural cells is the body’s ultimate control and ___-___ center.
cerebral cortex
information processing

The cells that support, protect, and nourish cortical neurons are called ___. These cells may also play a role in ___ and ___.
glial cells
learning
thinking

Compared to the cortexes of lower mammals the human cortex has a ___ surface. This ___ the overall surface area of our brains.
more wrinkled
increases

List the four lobes of the brain:
frontal lobe
parietal lobe
occipital lobe
temporal lobe

Electrical stimulation of one side of the ___ cortex an arch shaped region at the back of the ____ lobe, will produce movement on the opposite side of the body. The more precise the control needed, the ___ amount of cortical space occupied. Findings from clinical trials involving ___, in which, for example recording electrodes were implanted in this area of a 25 year old mans brain raise hopes that people who are ___ may one day be able to control machines directly with their ___.
motor
frontal
greater
neural prosthetics
paralyzed
thoughts (or brains)

At the front of the parietal lobes lie the ___ cortex, which when stimulated elicits a sensation of ___.
sensory
touch

The more sensitive a body region, the greater the area of ___ devoted to it.
sensory cortex

Visual information is received in the ___ lobes, whereas auditory information is received in the ___ lobes.
occipital
temporal

Areas of the brain that don’t receive sensory information or direct movement but rather integrate and interpret information received by other regions are known as ___ Approximately ___ of the human cortex is of this type. Such areas in the ___ lobe are involved in judging, planning, and processing of new memories and in some aspects of personality. In the ___ lobe, these areas enable mathematical and spatial reasoning and an area of the ___ lobe enables us to recognize faces.
association areas
three fourths
frontal
parietal
temporal

Although the mind’s subsytems are localized in particular brain regions, the brain ___ act as a unified whole.
does

The quality of the brain that makes it possible for undamaged brain areas to take over the functions of damaged regions is known as ___. This quality is especially apparent in the brains of ___
plasticity
young children

Although severed neurons usually ___ regenerate, some neural tissue can ___ in response to damage. The form of therapy aimed at helping to reprogram a damaged brain is called ___ therapy. New evidence suggests that all adult mice and humans ___ generate new brain cells through a process called ___. Research also reveals the existence of master ___ cells in the human embryo that can develop into any type of brain cell.
will not
reorganize
constraint-induced
can
neurogenesis
stem

The brain’s two sides serve differing functions which is referred to as a hemispheric specialization or ___. Because damage to it will impair language and understanding the ___ hemisphere came to be know as the ___ hemisphere.
lateralization
left
dominant (major)

In treating several patients with severe epilepsy Vogel and Bogen seperated the two hemispheres of the brain by cutting the ___. When this structure is severed the result is referred to as a ___.
corpus callosum
split brain

In a split brain patient only the ___ hemisphere will be aware of an unseen object held in the left hand. In this case the person would bot be able to ___ the object. When different words are shown in the left and right visual fields if the patient fixates on a point on the center line between the fields the patient will be able to say only the word shown on the ___.
right
name
right

When the two minds of a split brain are at odds, the ___ hemisphere tries to rationalize what it doesn’t understand. The ___ hemisphere often acts on autopilot. This phenomenon demonstrates that the ___ mind ___ control our behavior.
left
right
unconscious
can

Deaf people use the ___ hemisphere to process sign language.
left

Although the ___ hemisphere is better at making literal interpretations of language, the ___ hemisphere excels at quick, intuitive responses and at copying drawings, ___, perceiving objects and perceiving ___.
left
right
recognizing faces
emotion

In all culture of the world most of the human population is ___ handed. Genetic factors ___ a role in handedness. This handedness bias is unique to humans and to our nearest ___ relatives.
right
play
primate

right hemisphere
specializes in spatial relations

brainstem
oldest part of the brain

temporal lobes
brain areas containing the auditory cortex

occipital lobes
brain areas containing the visual cortex

plasticity
the brain’s capacity for modification

neurogenesis
the formation of new neurons

reuptake
absorption of excess neurotransmitters

limbic system
regulates emotion

association areas
brain areas involved in higher mental functions

left hemisphere
specializes in rationalizing reactions

glial cells
support cells of the nervous system

hypothalamus
contains reward centers

lesion
tissue destruction

EEG
amplified recording of brain waves

fMRI
technique that uses radio waves and magnetic fields to show brain function

reticular formation
help control arousal

MRI
technique that uses radio waves and magnetic fields to image brain anatomy

thalamus
serves as a sensory switchboard

corpus callosum
links the cerebral hemispheres

cerebellum
enables coordinated movement

amygdala
influences rage and fear

medulla
regulates breathing and heartbeat

The study of ___ was central in the early years of psychology and in recent decades, but for quite some time it was displaced by the study of observable ___.
consciousness
behavior

Advances in neuroscience made it possible to relate ___ to various mental states as a result psychologists once again affirmed the importance of ___.
brain activity
cognition

The interdisciplinary study of how brain activity is linked with mental processes is called ___.
cognitive neuroscience

Much of our everyday thinking, feeling and acting operates outside of our ___ awareness.
conscious

Unconscious information processing occurs ___ on ___ tracks.
simultaneously
parallel

Solving new problems ___ conscious attention.
requires

In comparison with unconscious processing, conscious processing has a ___ capacity, is relatively ____ and processes pieces of information ___.
limited
slow
serially

When we focus our conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, we are using ___.
selective attention

Your ability to attend to only one voice among many is called the ___. Failing to see a visible object when our attention is directed elsewhere is called ___.
cocktail party effect
inattentional blindness

When researchers distracted participants with a counting task, the participants displayed ___ and failed to notice a gorilla suited assistant who passed through. Two specific forms of this phenomenon are ___ and ___. Another result of distraction involves not noticing that different people are speaking, called ___.
inattentional blindness
change blindness
choice blindness
change deafness

Some stimuli are so powerful they demand our attention causing us to experience ___.
pop-out

Our bodies’ internal “clocks” control several ___.
biological rhythms

The sleep walking cycle follows a 2 hour clock called the ___.
circadian rhythm

Body temperature ___ as morning approaches and begins to ___ again before we go to sleep.
rises
fall

When people are at their daily peak in circadian arousal, ___ is sharpest and ___ is most accurate.
thinking
memory

Our biological clock is reset each day by exposure to ___, which triggers proteins in the ___ of the eyes to signal the brain’s ___ gland to increase or decrease its production of ___.
bright light
retinas
pineal
melatonin

In the brain, the cluster of cells called the ___ controls the circadian clock.
suprachiasmatic nucleus

The sleep cycle consists of ___ distinct stages.
5

The rhythm of sleep cycles was discovered when Aserinsky noticed that, at periodic intervals during the night, the ___ of a sleeping child moved rapidly. This stage of sleep, during which ___ occur is called ___.
eyes
dreams
REM sleep

The relatively slow brain waves of the awake but relaxed state are known as ___ waves.
alpha

During Stage 1 sleep, people often experience ___ sensations similar to ___. These sensations may later be incorporated into ___.
hypnagogic
hallucinations
memories

The bursts of brain-wave activity that occur during Stage 2 sleep are called ___.
sleep spindles

Large slow brain waves are called ___ waves. They occur first in Stage ___, and increasingly during Stage ___ sleep, which are therefore called ____ sleep. A person in the latter stage of sleep generally will be ___ to awaken. It is during this stage that children may wet the bed or begin ___.
delta
3
4
slow wave
difficult
sleep walking

During REM sleep, the motor cortex is ___ while the muscles are ___. For this reason, REM is often referred to as ___sleep.
active
relaxed
paradoxical

The rapid eye movements generally signal the beginning of a ___, which during REM sleep is often storylike, ___, and more richly hallucinatory.
dream
emotional

The sleep cycle repeats itself about every ___ minutes. As the night progresses, Stage 4 sleep becomes ____ and REM periods become ___. Approximately ___ percent of a night’s sleep is spent in REM sleep.
90
briefer
longer
20 to 25

Newborns spend nearly ___ of their day asleep, while adults spend no more than ___.
two thirds
one third

Sleep patterns are influenced by ___, as indicated by the fact that sleep patterns among ___ twins are very similar. Sleep is also influenced by ___, as indicated by the fact that people now sleep ___ than they did a century ago.
genes
identical
culture
less

Allowed to sleep unhindered most people sleep ___ hours a night.
9

Teenagers typically need ___ hours of sleep but now average nearly ____ hours less sleep than teenagers of 80 years ago. To psychologist William ___, this indicates that the vast majority of students are dangerously sleep-deprived. One effect of this state is to promote weight gain by increasing the hormone ___ and decreasing the hormone ___. Another is that sleep deprivation may suppress the functioning of the body’s ____ system and alter metabolic and hormonal functioning in ways that mimic ___ and are conducive to ___ and ___. Another indication of the hazards of this state is that the rate of ____ tends to increase immediately after the spring time change in Canada and the US.
8 or 9
2
Dement
ghrelin
leptin
immune
aging
hypertension
memory impairment
accidents

Two possible reasons for sleep are to ___ us and to help restore body tissues, especially those of the ____. Animals with high waking ____ produce an abundance of chemical ____ that are toxic to ____. Sleep also facilitates our ____ of the day’s experiences and stimulates ____ thinking.
protect
brain
metabolism
free radicals
neurons
memory
creative

During sleep a growth hormone is released by ____ gland. Adults spend ____ time in deep sleep than children and so release ____ growth hormone.
pituitary
less
less

A persistent difficulty in falling or staying asleep is characteristic of ___. Sleeping pills and alcohol may make the problem worse since they tend to ____ REM sleep.
insomnia
reduce

The sleep disorder in which a person experiences uncontrollable sleep attacks is ____. People with severe cases of this disorder may collapse directly into ____ sleep and experience a loss of ____. This disorder may be linked to low levels of the neurotransmitter ____, which is linked to alertness.
narcolepsy
REM
muscular tension
orexin

Individuals suffering from ___ stop breathing while sleeping. This disorder is especially prevalent among ___.
sleep apnea
overweight men

The sleep disorder characterized by extreme fright and rapid heartbeat and breathing is called ____. Unlike nightmares, these episodes usually happen early in the night, during Stage ____ sleep. THe same is true of episodes of ___ and ___, problems that ____ in families. These sleep episodes are most likely to be experienced by ___ in whom this stage tends to be the ___ and ___.
night terrors
4
sleepwalking
sleep talking
run
young children
lengthiest
deepest

Dreams experienced during ____ sleep are vivid, emotional, and bizarre.
REM

For both men and women, 8 in 10 dreams are marked by ___ emotions, such as fears of being ____.
negative
attacked, pursued, or rejected, or of experiencing misfortune

Freud referred to the actual content of a dream as its ___ content. Freud believed that this is a censored symbolic version of the true meaning or ___ of the dream.
manifest
latent content

According to Freud, most of the dreams of adults reflect ___ wishes and are the key to understanding inner ___. To Freud, dreams serve as psychic ____ that discharges otherwise unacceptable feelings.
erotic
conflicts
safety valve

Researchers who believe that dreams serve an ____ processing function receive support from the fact that REM sleep facilitates ___.
information
memory

Brain scans confirm the link between ___ sleep and ____.
REM
memory

Other theories propose that dreaming serves some ___ function, for example that REM sleep provides the brain with needed ____. Such an explanation is supported by the fact that ___ spend the most time in REM sleep.
physiological
stimulation
infants

Still other theories propose that dreams are elicited by random bursts of ____ activity originating in lower regions of the brain, such as the ____. According to the ___ theory, dreams are the brain’s attempt to make sense of this activity. The bursts are believed to be given their emotional tone by the brain’s ___ system. PET scans of sleeping people reveal increased activity in the brain’s ____ system, especially the ___. Other theorists see dreams as a natural part of brain ____ and ___ development.
neural
brainstem
activation synthesis
limbic
limbic
amygdala
maturation
cognitive

Researchers agree that we ____ REM sleep. After being deprived of REM sleep, a person spends more time in REM sleep; this is the ____ effect.
need
REM rebound

REM sleep ___ occur in other mammals. Animals such as fish, whose behavior is less influenced by learning, ___ dream. The finding supports the ___ theory of daydreaming.
does
do not
information processing

Hypnosis is a ___ in which a hypnotist suggests that a subject will experience certain feelings or thoughts for example.
social interaction

Most people are ___ hypnotically suggestible.
somewhat

The idea that we can relive childhood experiences through hypnosis–referred to as ___ –has not been supported by research.
age regression

Research studies show that “hypnotically refreshed” memories combine ___ with ___.
fact
fiction

An ___ person in a legitimate ___ can induce people–hypnotized or not–to perform some unlikely acts.
authoritative
context

Hypnotherapists have helped some people alleviate headaches, asthma, and stress related skin disorders through the use of ___ suggestions.
posthypnotic

Hypnosis ___ especially helpful for the treatment of obesity. It ___ useful in treating smoking, drug, and alcohol addictions.
is
is not

Hypnosis ___ relieve pain.
can

PET scans show that hypnosis reduces brain activity in a region involved in ___ to painful stimuli, but not in the ___ cortex that receives the raw ___ input.
attending
sensory
sensory

Skeptics believe that hypnosis may reflect the workings of ___. These findings provide support for the ___ theory of hypnosis.
normal consciousness
social influence

Hilgard has advanced the idea that during hypnosis there is a ___ or split, between different levels of consciousness. For example, he believes that there is a split between the ___ and ___ aspects of pain. Hypnotic pain relief may also be due to selective ___, that is to the person’s focusing on stimuli other than pain.
dissociation
sensory
emotional
attention

Drugs that alter moods and perceptions are called ___ drugs.
psychoactive

Drug users who require increasing doses to experience a drug’s effects have developed ___ for the drug. The user’s brain counteracts the disruption to its normal functioning; thus the user experiences ___.
tolerance
neuroadaptation

After ceasing to use a drug, a person who experiences ___ symptoms has developed a physical ___. Regular use of a drug to relieve stress is an example of a ___ dependence. A person who has a compulsive craving for a substance despite adverse consequences is ___ to that substance.
withdrawal
dependence
psychological
addicted

The three broad categories of drugs discussed in the text include ___, which tend to slow body functions; ___, which speed body functions; and ___ which alter perception. These drugs all work by mimicking, stimulating, or inhibiting the activity of the brain’s ___. Psychologically our culturally influenced ___ also play a role.
depressants
stimulants
hallucinogens
neurotransmitters
expectations

Depressants ___ nervous system activity and ___ body function. Low doses of alcohol, which is classified as a ____, slow the activity of the ___ nervous system.
calm
slow
depressant
sympathetic

Alcohol may make a person more ___, more ___ or more ___ daring. Alcohol affects memory by interfering with the process of transferring experiences into ___ memory. Also blackouts after drinking result from alcohol’s suppression of ___.
aggressive
helpful
sexually
long-term
REM sleep

Excessive use of alcohol can also affect cognition by ___ the brain, especially in ___. Alcohol also reduces ___ and focuses one’s attention on the ___ situation and away from ___ consequences, thus lessening ___.
shrinking
women
self awareness
immediate
future
impulse control

Tranquilizers which are also known as ___, have effects similar to those alcohol.
barbiturates

Opium, morphine and heroin all ___ neural functioning. Together these drugs are called the ___. When they are present, the brain eventually stops producing ___.
depress
opiates
endorphins

The most widely used stimulants are ___, ____, the ____, ____, ____, and ___. Stimulants ____ addictive.
caffeine
nicotine
amphetamine
cocaine
ecstasy
methamphetamine
are

Methamphetamine triggers the release of the neurotransmitter ___, which stimulates brain cells that enhance ___ and ___.
dopamine
energy
mood

Eliminating ___ would increase life expectancy more than any other preventive measure. Smoking usually begins during ___. Smokers ___ become dependent on ___ and they ___ develop tolerance to the drug. Quitting causes ___-___ symptoms include ___.
smoking
early adolescence
do
nicotine
do
nicotine withdrawal
craving, insomnia, anxiety and irritability

Nicotine quickly triggers the release of ___ and ___, two neurotransmitters that diminish ___ and boost ___ and ___. Nicotine also stimulates the ___ system to release ___ and ___ neurotransmitters that calm ___ and reduce sensitivity to ___.
epinephrine
norepinephrine
appetite
alertness
mental efficiency
central nervous
dopamine
opioids
anxiety
pain

Cocaine and crack deplete the brain’s supply of the neurotransmitters ___, ___ and ___ and result in depression as the drugs’ effects wear off. They do this by blocking the ___ of the neurotransmitters, which remain in the nerve cells’ ____.
dopamine
seratonin
norepinephrine
reuptake (reabsorption)
synapses

Cocaine’s psychological effects depend not only on dosage and form but also on ___, ___ and the ____.
expectations
personality
situation

The drug ___, or MDMA, is both a ___ and ___. This drug triggers the release of the neurotransmitters ___ and ___ and blocks the reabsorption of ___. Among the adverse effects of this drug are disruption of they body’s ___ clock, suppression of the ____, and impaired ___ and other ___ functions.
ecstasy
stimulant
mild hallucinogen
dopamine
serotonin
serotonin
circadian
immune system
memory
cognitive

Hallucinogens are also referred to as ____. Two common synthetic hallucinogens are ___ and LSD which is chemically similar to a subtype of the neurotransmitter ___. LSD works by ___ the actions of this neurotransmitter.
psychedelics
MDMA
serotonin
blocking

THe active ingredient in marijuana is abbreviated ___.
THC

All psychoactive drugs trigger ____, which helps explain both ___ and ____.
negative aftereffects
tolerance
withdrawal

Drugs use by North American youth ___ during the 1970s then declined until the early 1990s due to increased ___ and efforts by the media to deglamorize drug use.
increased
drug education

Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcohol dependence if they had a ____ parent with a history of alcohol dependence may cause deficiencies in the brain’s ___ system.
biological
more
dopamine reward

Among teenagers, drug use ___ across ___ and ___ groups.
varies
cultura;
ethnic

African American high school seniors report the ___ rates of drug use. A major social influence on drug use is the ___ culture.
lowest
peer

State 3 possible channels of influence for drug prevention and treatment programs.
1. education about the long term costs of a drug’s temporary pleasures
2. efforts to boost people’s self esteem and purpose in life
3. attempts to “inoculate” youths against peer pressures

The reports of people who have had near-death experiences are very similar to the ___ reported by drug users. These experiences may be the result of a deficient supply of ___ or other insults to the brain.
hallucinations
oxygen

manifest content
surface meaning of dreams

latent content
deeper meaning of dreams

Stages 3 and 4 sleep
stage of sleep associated with delta waves

REM sleep
stage of sleep associated with muscular relaxation

sleep apnea
sleep disorder in which breathing stops

night terrors
sleep disorder occurring in Stage 4 sleep

alcohol
depressant

marijuana
hallucinogen

cocaine
stimulant

dual processing
simultaneous unconscious and conscious tracks

narcolepsy
disorder in which sleep attacks occur

cognitive neuroscience
study of how brain activity is linked to mental activity

Stage 1 sleep
twilight stage of sleep associated with imagery resembling hallucinations

ecstasy
drug that is both a stimulant and mild hallucinogen

amphetamines
drugs that increase energy and stimulate neural activity

alpha
brain wave of of awake, relaxed person

sleep spindle
brain wave activity during Stage 2 sleep

REM
sleep stage associated with dreaming

barbiturates
drugs that reduce anxiety and depress CNS activity

endorphins
natural painkillers produced by the brain

selective attention
focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment

Freud’s theory
theory that dreaming reflects our erotic drives

dissociation
a split between different levels of consciousness

serotonin
neurotransmitter that LSD resembles