Psych Chapter 8 – Memory Key Terms / Issues

Memory
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

Working Memory
– a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

Encoding
– the processing of information into the memory system–for example, by extracting meaning

Storage
– the retention of encoded information over time

Retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage

Sensory Memory
– the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

Long Term Memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.

Short Term Memory
Activated memory that holds a few times briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.

Automatic Processing
– unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

Effortful Processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

Rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

Spacing Effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

Serial Position Effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

Semantic Encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

Acoustic Encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

Visual Encoding
the encoding of picture images

Imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

Mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

Chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

Iconic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

Echoic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

Long Term Potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapses firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

Amnesia
Loss of memory

Implicit Memory
retention independent of conscious recollection. Also called procedural memory

Explicit Memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”

Hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage

Recall
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.

Recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

Relearning
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

Priming
the implicit activation of particular associations in memory.

Deja vu
that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.

Mood Congruent Memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.

Source Amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined

Proactive Interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

Retroactive Interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

Repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

Misinformation Effect
incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event

Flashbulb Memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

Aphasia
loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.

Broca’s Area
a region of the brain concerned with the production of speech, located in the cortex of the dominant frontal lobe.

Broca’s Aphasia
words spoken that are characterized by hesitant and fragmented speech with little grammatical structure.

Wernicke’s Area
a region of the brain concerned with the comprehension of language, located in the cortex of the dominant temporal lobe.

Wernicke’s Aphasia
words spoken that are characterized by superficially fluent, grammatical speech but an inability to use or understand more than the most basic nouns and verbs.

Alzheimer’s Disease
a progressive mental deterioration that can occur in middle or old age, due to generalized degeneration of the brain. It is the most common cause of premature senility.

Senility
having or showing the weaknesses or diseases of old age, especially a loss of mental functioning

Serial Position Effect
finding that immediate recall of items listed in a fixed order is better for items at the beginning and end rather than those in the middle

Elaboration
the process of creating associations between a new memory and existing memories

holding an exact image of the sensory experience.
Which of the following best describes the memory capacity of the sensory register?

We form connections between concepts based on experience.
Which of the following is the best explanation of the spreading activation model of long-term memory?

schema
An associative network of beliefs, knowledge, and expectations is known as a ________

chunking
To stretch the storage capacity of short-term memory, individuals are capable of grouping like items together. For instance, the directions north, south, east, and west can be group as “directions,” and “directions” could be one item in memory. This process of stretching the limits of short-term memory in this fashion is called

levels of processing model
The depth at which we process information determines how well it is encoded, stored, and retrieved. This statement is the central idea of the _____

There is not a strong enough retrieval cue to recover the memory.
If you believe that long-term memories are permanently stored, then which of the following is the most logical explanation for forgetting long-term memories?

proactive interference
The interference built up by prior learning is known as

retrograde amnesia
While delivering his papers, Ernie had a bicycle accident and received a hard blow to the head. As a result, he could not remember the events preceding the accident. Ernie is experiencing

new
Anterograde amnesia is the inability to store and retrieve ______ information in long-term memory.

both STM and LTM
Experimental evidence for the interference theory of forgetting has been found in studies of _________

recall
You wish to log on to your computer network and the system requests your password. You no longer have the piece of paper you wrote the password on, so you must rely on

the spreading activation model
Which theory of the organization of long-term memory claims that concepts are linked by experience?

1/4 second
Visual information remains in the sensory register for about ______

false memories
When people forget, they are not only distorting information but may also be remembering events that never occurred. This is consistent with the idea of

indexed
One way in which long-term memory is different from short-term memory is that the information in long-term memory is

hippocampus; cortical
Information stored in LTM is integrated in the _______ before it is transferred to _______ areas for permanent storage.

declarative
Researchers who study memory sometimes group semantic and episodic memories together under the category ______ memories.

They are remembered better because they have more opportunity for rehearsal.
What best explains the degree of recall for items at the beginning of a list?

procedural memory
When asked what your parent’s phone number is, you cannot repeat it, but a moment later you can dial it from memory without looking it up. In this case, which memory system has served you well?

proactive
Mary’s study of psychology interfered with her capacity to recall sociology. Since psychology was studied first, the interference is__________

we form concepts based on our experiences
Which of the following is the best explanation of the spreading activation model of long-term memory?

memories that are closely associated with memory cues
Which of the following is the best explanation of the spreading activation model of long-term memory?

synaptic facilitation
Donald Hebb described a process that he believed was the physiological process responsible for learning and memory. He termed this process _______

relearning
You cannot remember much of what you learned in high school chemistry but you learn the same chemistry material in college much faster than you did in high school. Which method of memory evaluation does this illustrate?

recall
You wish to log on to your computer network and the system requests your password. You no longer have the piece of paper you wrote the password on, so you must rely on ______

episodic
Of all the types of long-term memories, which type appears to be the most fragile?

proactive interference
Recently Tom’s five-speed sports car was in the shop for needed repairs and Tom borrowed a large car with an automatic transmission. Tom kept trying to shift gears as if he were driving a stick shift. This example illustrates _________

chunks
Of the following, the best way to expand the amount of material one can store in short-term memory is to organize material into _______

episodic memory
Memory for experiences that can be defined in terms of time and place is called

short term memory
You were introduced to your date’s best friend just 10 minutes ago. Now you need to get her attention but you cannot remember her name. You forgot because of the limits of ________

Hippocampus
the part of the brain that processes EXPLICIT memories

Explicit Memory
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory.) Responsible for facts, knowledge, experiences

Cerebellum
Part of the brain that processes IMPLICIT memories

Implicit Memory
Retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.) Responsible for motor skills, classical conditioning (like playing the piano)

Flashbulb Memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event (helped by the amygdala)

LTP (long term potentation)
Increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

CREB
A protein that switches genes off or on; helps us retain long-term memories by increasing the production of proteins that enable LTP.

Glutamate
A neurotransmitter that enhances synaptic communication (LTP).

Iconic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

Ethoic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

Magical Number 7
George Miller noted recall capacity to be seven bits of info, plus or minus 2. This is the limitation of information that can be stored in short-term memory.

Long term memory capacity
Limitless

recall
A measure of memory in which the person must retrive information learned earlier (Fill-in-the-blank

Recognition
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned (Multiple-choice)

Relearning
You relearn something quicker than when you first learned it, even if you forgot it all

Retrieval Cues
Anchor points you use to access target information. Mnemonic devies are an example

Priming
The activation of particular associations in memory (after seeing the word “rabbit”, we are more likely to spell the spoken word hair/hare as “hare”).

Context Effects
Putting yourself back in the context where you originally experienced something helps retrieve the memory (like re-tracing your steps to remember where you put the car keys).

Deja Vu
The eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before”. Cues from your current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience. Goes with context effects

State Dependent Memory
What we learn in one state may be more easily recalled when back in that same state (if you hide money while drunk, you may remember where you hid it once you’re drunk again).

Mood Congruent Memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood. (currently depressed people describe memories in a bad way, formerly depressed people see memories in a more positive light).

3 Sins of Forgetting
Absent-mindedness (inattention to details leads to encoding failure), transcience (storage decay over time), blocking (inaccessibility of stored information– tip-of-the-tongue)

3 Sins of Distortion
Misattribution (confusing the source of information), suggestibility (lingering effects of misinformation, as with leading questions), bias (belief-colored recollections)

Memory and age
The brain areas that encode new information are less responsive in older adults

Ebbinghaus
After learning lists of nonsense syllables, ___________studied how much he retained. The forgetting curve declines quickly, then levels out (usually after 3 years).

Proactive Interference
Something you learned earlier disrupts your recall of something you experience later

Retroactive Interference
New information makes it harder to recall something you learned earlier.

Repression
The classical defense mechanism that protects you from impulses or ideas that would cause anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious

Misinformation Effect
Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event

Source Amnesia
Also called source misattribution; attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (often experienced by songwriters and authors)

Memory Construction
Our mind Photoshops our memories. Also related to hindsight bias

Associative Learning
Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).

Classical Conditioning
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

Learning
A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.

Behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
Unconditionally (automatically and naturally) triggers a response. In Pavlov’s experiment, the food.

Unconditioned Response (UR)
The unlearned, natural response to the unconditioned stimulus (US). In Pavlov’s experiment, the salivation in response to the food.

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The originally neutral stimulus that triggers the CR after conditioning. In Pavlov’s experiment, the tone.

Conditioned Response (CR)
The learned response to the previously neutral stimulus (CS). In Pavlov’s experiment, the salivation in response to the tone.

Acquisition
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.

Higher order conditioning
A new neutral stimulus can become a new conditioned stimulus. It’s often weaker than first-stage conditioning.

Timing
Presenting the US BEFORE the CS rather than after doesn’t work– animals want to be able to predict events. Half a second should elapse between each stimulus.

Extinction
The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs when the US stops following the CS. The tone no longer signals the food.

Spontaneous Recovery
The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a pause.

Generalization
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses (fudge looks disgusting when shaped like dog poop).

Discrimination
The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus (confronted by a pit bull, your heart may race, but confronted with a golden retriever, it probably won’t).

Biological Dispositions
Different species are biologically prepared to learn different associations.

Applications of Classical Conditioning
Former drug users feel a craving when in the drug-using environment, so we know to advise them to steer clear of their drug-using context. When a particular taste accompanies a drug that influences immune responses, the taste by itself may come to produce an immune response. Little Albert learned to fear animals.

Respondent Behavior
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response

Operant Behavior
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

Operant Conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

Law of Effect
Thorndike’s idea that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

Skinner Box
Named for its developer, B.F. Skinner, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response

Shaping
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward the desired behavior using successive approximations.

Reinforcer
Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.

Positive Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food or concert tickets. When ADDED after a response, strengthens the response.

Negative Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as a headache (taking aspirin is the behavior, the negative reinforcement is that it takes away the headache. Putting on a seatbelt is the behavior, turning off the annoying beeping is the negative reinforcement). When REMOVED after a response, strengthens the response.

Primary Reinforcer
Unlearned, innately satisfying (getting food when hungry).

Conditioned reinforcer
Also known as secondary reinforcer; gains its reinforcing power through association with a primary reinforcer (money is secondary, food is primary because money is associated with food. Good gades are another example).

Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.

Partial Reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition but much greater resistance to extinction

Fixed Ratio Schedule
Every so many; reinforcement after a fixed number of responses (buy 10 coffees, get one free)

Variable Ration Schedule
After an unpredictable number; reinforcement after a random number of behaviors (slot machines, fishing)

Fixed Interval Schedule
Every so often; reinforcement after a fixed amount of time (pigeons pecking the key more frequently as anticipated reward time draws near, or checking the mail more frequently when expected delivery time draws near)

Variable Interval Schedule
Unpredictably often; reinforcement after a random amount of time (checking for email)

Punishment
The opposite of reinforcement; decreases the behavior that it follows.

Positive Punishment
Administer an aversive stimulus (parking ticket)

Negative Punishment
Withdraw a desirable stimulus (revoked driver’s license)

Cognitive Map
A mental representation of the layout of one’s environment (like a rat’s mental representation of a maze)

Latent Learning
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it (evidence of cognitive processes)

Intrinsic Motivation
desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake (undermined by excessive rewards)

Extrinsic Motivation
desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment (reading the psych book not to learn it but to avoid failing a test)

Observational Learning
Learning by observing others

Modeling
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

Mirror Neurons
Monkey see, monkey do. Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy. People with autism have “broken mirrors”– reduced mirror neuron activity.

Bobo Doll Experiement
Albert Bandura’s famous experiment illustrating modeling (the kids imitated the adults’ treatment of the Bobo doll).

Prosocial Models
Positive, constructive, helpful (opposite of antisocial)

Antisocial Effects of Observational Learning
Abusive parents –> aggressive children. Violent video games –> violent imitation. Prolonged exposure to violence desensitizes viewers as well.

Processing of Information
Processing of information

Storage
Retention of encoded information over time

Retrieval
Process of getting information out of storage

Sensory Memory
Immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

Short term memory
Holds only a few items briefly, such as a phone number before dialing

Long term memory
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

Working Memory
A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.

Automatic Processing
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meaning

Three State Processing of Memory
External events –> Sensory memory –> Encoding (attention to important/novel information) –> Working/short-term memory –> Encoding/Retrieving –> Long-term memory

Effortful Memory
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

Rehearsal
Conscious repetition of information

Spacing Effect
Tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study of practice

Serial Position Effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

Primacy Effect
Recall is best for the first items learned

Recall Effect
Recall is best for last items because they are still in working memory

Visual Encoding
Encoding of picture images

Acoustic Encoding
Encoding of sound, especially of words

Semantic Encoding
Encoding of meaning

Imagery
We more easily remember things we can picture– for example, it’s easier to remember concrete words than abstract ones.

Chunking
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

Mnemonic Devices
Memory aids using imagery and organizational devices (ROY G BIV for the colors of the rainbow)

Hierarchies
Broad concepts divided into narrower concepts and facts