PSYCH Chapter 4

According to Bandura, to learn anything through observation, the learner must first
pay attention.

The four elements of observational learning are attention, memory, ______, and ______.
imitation; motivation

Bandura conducted some of his research to study
possible links between children’s exposure to violence on television and aggressive behavior toward others.

The learning/performance distinction is demonstrated by
the aggressive behavior by the children to the Bobo doll in Bandura’s study.

If Pavlov’s dogs heard a ticking similar to that of the metronome used in his experiments,
the dogs would salivate.

After a lengthy period during which the UCS was not applied, Pavlov’s dogs stopped responding to the metronome. If a weaker conditioned response to the metronome occurred at some point after this, it would be a demonstration of:
spontaneous recovery.

_____ believed that classical conditioning occurred because the CS became a substitute for the UCS when paired closely together in time.
Pavlov

“Little Albert” acquired a conditioned emotional response to the rat when its presentation was coupled with
a loud noise.

One of the first psychologists to conduct studies in an attempt to explain human behavior was
John Watson.

An unconditioned stimulus is always followed by a(n)
unconditioned response.

________ pioneered the empirical study of the basic principles of classical conditioning.
Ivan Pavlov

Research suggests that once people learn something,
it is always present somewhere in memory

Marco’s mom gives him a treat every night after dinner when he picks up his plate and places it in the dishwasher. Marco’s mom uses
continuous reinforcement.

Which of the following would be considered negative reinforcement?
a child who had previously been whining to a parent that they want candy becomes quiet after getting the candy

A police car is a ___________ for slowing down.
discriminative stimulus

_______ is an example of punishment by removal.
Grounding a teenager

Fishing is an example of an activity with a
variable interval schedule of reinforcement

A recent study suggests a link between spanking and
aggression in children.

A modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses both analysis of current behavior and shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response is
applied behavior analysis (ABA)

Most of the time, punishment
will only temporarily suppress a behavior

In Tolman’s study of latent learning, one group of rats was rewarded for getting out of the maze, a second was not rewarded during training trials but was rewarded eventually, and a third group of rats was
not rewarded.

Köhler’s chimp experiment involved
a chimp fitting one stick into another stick to reach out of his cage for a banana

Köhler’s chimp study demonstrates that insight requires
a sudden “coming together” of all the elements of a problem.

Amy is unhappy with her job. She works long hours for little pay and her boss is disrespectful to her. Even though she knows it’s a bad job, she doesn’t quit or find a new job as she thinks her efforts won’t matter. This is an example of
learned helplessness.

In toilet training a cat, “Lid Up, Seat Down” is known in operant conditioning as
preparing the training arena

Changes such as an increase in height or the size of the brain are called
maturation.

What are the two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of?
involuntary and voluntary

_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
Observational learning

Pavlov initially set out to study his dogs’
digestive systems.

Which psychologist is best known for working with children and a Bobo doll to study whether aggressive behavior is learned by watching others be aggressive?
Albert Bandura

Which of the following is one of Bandura’s elements of observational learning?
memory

Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful is called
latent learning.

It is believed that animals revert quickly to instinctual behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with
obtaining food.

In a(n) ________, the occurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement

Birds, who find their food by sight, will avoid any object or insect that simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result of
biological preparedness.

A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response is a/an
unconditioned stimulus.

In his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the rats in the group that didn’t receive reinforcement for solving the maze had
learned the maze by wandering around in it and forming a cognitive map

In his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov’s dogs were conditioned to salivate when they
heard the sound of the metronome

Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as
successive approximations.

In Köhler’s experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the cage, and then learned to fit two sticks together. This was an example of
insight.

The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning involves
the mental activity of consciously expecting something else to occur.

The law of effect states if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it is likely to
be repeated.

In Seligman’s study on dogs, the dogs that were not conditioned to fear the tone
jumped over the fence when the shock started.

_________ is the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).
Extinction

Further studies that followed Köhler’s work with chimpanzees
have found support for the concept of animal insight.

After a childhood filled with cavities, Kyle has an active dislike of the dentist’s drill. His tendency to become anxious when hearing a similar-sounding noise is termed
stimulus generalization.

Whenever Vernon comes home too late on a Saturday night, his parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon’s parents are using what technique to modify his behavior?
punishment by removal

A teacher has decided to give ‘caught being good’ tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This teacher is using
operant conditioning.

Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She’s older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an example of
conditioned emotional response

In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment, the children who saw a model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed aggression toward the doll. Which of the following statements is true about the other children, who saw the model get punished rather than rewarded?
They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demonstrate what the model had done

The learning/performance distinction is demonstrated by
the aggressive behavior by the children to the Bobo doll in Bandura’s study.

Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful is called
latent learning.

In a(n) ________, the occurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement

In order to be effective, a secondary reinforcer must be paired with a
primary reinforcer.

Further studies that followed Köhler’s work with chimpanzees
have found support for the concept of animal insight.

Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as
successive approximations

Operant conditioning is dependent on
voluntary behavior.

In Seligman’s study, dogs that had been harnessed and had learned there was nothing they could do to escape a shock
would not attempt to escape when escape was possible

When a behavior is reinforced according to the number of responses required, it is
on a ratio schedule of reinforcement.

It is believed that animals revert quickly to instinctual behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with
obtaining food.

A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response is a/an
unconditioned stimulus.

Aggression in children is ________ violence on TV.
positively correlated with

In negative reinforcement, a(n) _________ is removed; in punishment by removal, a(n) ________ is removed.
unpleasant thing; pleasant, or desirable thing

Köhler believed that Sultan the chimp had solved the problem of reaching the banana
by having a sudden perception of relationships

Pavlov’s dogs exhibited stimulus discrimination when they
did not demonstrate a conditioned response upon hearing ticking sounds similar to the metronome

Which of the following would be considered negative reinforcement?
a child who had previously been whining to a parent that they want candy becomes quiet after getting the candy

A typical use of applied behavior analysis is
treating children with disorders such as autism

A teacher has decided to give ‘caught being good’ tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This teacher is using
operant conditioning

In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment, the children who saw a model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed aggression toward the doll. Which of the following statements is true about the other children, who saw the model get punished rather than rewarded?
They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demonstrate what the model had done

The learning/performance distinction is a kind of
latent learning

The four elements of observational learning are attention, memory, ______, and ______.
imitation; motivation

_____ believed that classical conditioning occurred because the CS became a substitute for the UCS when paired closely together in time.
Pavlov

______ is the classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.
Vicarious conditioning

Which of the following individuals believed that cognition was an important part of behavior?
Martin Seligman

_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
Observational learning