Psych Chapter 14 Quiz Essay

question

A change in your marital status, a job change, moving, having a baby, and getting promoted are all examples of A. chronic stressors. B. life changes. C. acute stressors. D. conflicts.
answer

B. life changes.
question

One of the largest problems associated with illness confronted by the medical profession is A. the lack of adequate training in areas of specialties. B. the increase in the use of homeopathic intervention. C. the overuse of emergency room facilities by people who do not need it. D. the delay in receiving treatment by people who need it.
answer

D. the delay in receiving treatment by people who need it.
question

Thelma goes to a nightclub and flirts with dozens of men whenever she feels neglected and ignored by her husband. In this example, Freud would suggest that Thelma is dealing with the stress generated by her feelings of neglect through A. overcompensation. B. undoing. C. fantasy. D. intellectualization.
answer

A. overcompensation.
question

After a long week balancing her work at the office, visiting her husband who was in the hospital with a broken leg, and making sure she took her turn driving the carpool for her children, Beverly decided she needed some time for herself. She stopped by the mall and purchased the leather jacket she had been admiring. Beverly’s coping response to stress can be BEST described as A. giving up. B. blaming oneself. C. indulging oneself. D. constructive coping.
answer

C. indulging oneself.
question

In dealing with stress, coping responses A. are not “coping” unless they are adaptive. B. may be adaptive or maladaptive. C. are always maladaptive. D. are always adaptive.
answer

B. may be adaptive or maladaptive.
question

The pursuit of a goal that has both attractive and unattractive features defines A. a double-blind conflict. B. an approach-approach conflict. C. an approach-avoidance conflict. D. an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
answer

C. an approach-avoidance conflict.
question

Bertram was on death row awaiting execution. He refused to allow any appeals on his behalf and insisted that the law be followed exactly. In this example, Freud would suggest that Bertram is dealing with the stress generated by his situation through A. undoing. B. intellectualization. C. overcompensation. D. fantasy.
answer

B. intellectualization.
question

Most of Conrad’s friends consider him to be highly neurotic. It is likely that, compared to his friends, Conrad is A. less likely to perceive events as stressful. B. more likely to perceive events as stressful. C. less likely to use defensive coping strategies. D. more likely to “choke” under pressure.
answer

B. more likely to perceive events as stressful.
question

Next semester, John needs to take one required course to complete his history major. The two sections of the course are offered at 8:00 a.m. (not ideal for John, who likes to sleep until 10:00 a.m.) and at noon with a professor usually referred to as Dr. Dull. As John decides on his schedule, he will MOST likely experience an ____ conflict. A. attack-avoidance B. approach-approach C. avoidance-avoidance D. approach-avoidance
answer

C. avoidance-avoidance
question

The notion that positive emotions alter people’s mindsets, increasing their creativity and flexibility in problem-solving, is part of the A. broaden and build theory of positive emotions. B. ebb and flow theory of positive emotions. C. flexible creativity theory of positive emotions. D. optimal arousal theory of positive emotions.
answer

A. broaden and build theory of positive emotions.
question

Persistent exposure to long-term stress can foster overproduction of cytokines, resulting in A. decreased inflammation. B. an increase in positive emotions. C. chronic inflammation. D. an increase in negative emotions.
answer

C. chronic inflammation.
question

In general, the LEAST stressful conflict is the A. double approach-avoidance conflict. B. avoidance-avoidance conflict. C. approach-approach conflict. D. approach-avoidance conflict.
answer

C. approach-approach conflict.
question

If one thinks of the general adaptation syndrome by the initials “GAS,” it is MOST appropriate to say “the body runs out of gas” during the A. stage of recovery. B. stage of resistance. C. alarm reaction stage. D. stage of exhaustion.
answer

D. stage of exhaustion.
question

When John was rejected for a summer internship, he thought that all his plans were ruined and he would no longer be able to get into a good graduate school. John is angry and upset. Albert Ellis believes that, if John is like MOST people, he will ____ attribute his anger to being caused by ____. A. correctly; the rejection B. incorrectly; his irrational appraisal of the situation C. correctly; irrational appraisal of the situation D. incorrectly; the rejection
answer

D. incorrectly; the rejection
question

Demands or expectations to behave in a certain way define the notion of A. conflict. B. stress. C. frustration. D. pressure.
answer

D. pressure.
question

The hypothalamus initiates the body’s physiological response to stress by activating the endocrine system through two major pathways that first signal the A. central nervous system and pituitary gland. B. autonomic nervous system and adrenal gland. C. autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland. D. central nervous system and adrenal gland.
answer

C. autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland.
question

Current research suggests it is MOST accurate to view the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) as assessing A. changes of all varieties. B. changes that relate to major life events. C. changes that relate to pressure and conflict. D. changes that relate to a wide variety of stressful experiences.
answer

D. changes that relate to a wide variety of stressful experiences.
question

Which of the following statements is LEAST accurate? A. Optimism is associated with more effective immune function B. Optimism is associated with action-oriented, problem-focused coping responses C. Optimism is associated with self-sufficiency and an unwillingness to seek social support D. Optimism is associated with relatively good physical health
answer

C. Optimism is associated with self-sufficiency and an unwillingness to seek social support
question

The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) is BEST described as including both A. positive and negative and large and small events. B. personal and environmental events. C. large and small events. D. positive and negative events.
answer

A. positive and negative and large and small events.
question

Neurogenisis A. can be promoted by positive emotions. B. can be promoted by stress. C. can be hindered by positive emotions. D. can be hindered by stress.
answer

D. can be hindered by stress.
question

Recent research suggests that ____ emotions experienced while under stress appear to play a key role in helping people bounce back from the difficulties associated with stress. A. negative B. positive C. unexpected D. very intense
answer

B. positive
question

Which of the following is NOT a reason given to explain why people engage in unhealthy behaviors? A. Many health-impairing habits creep up on us B. The risks associated with health-impairing habits tend to lie in the distant future C. People are often unaware of the of the dangers associated with their health-impairing behaviors D. Many health-impairing habits involve activities that are quite pleasant at the time
answer

C. People are often unaware of the of the dangers associated with their health-impairing behaviors
question

All of the following were cited in the textbook as factors that promote relaxation EXCEPT for A. focusing on a constant stimulus. B. drinking a small amount of alcohol. C. developing a passive attitude. D. being in a comfortable position.
answer

B. drinking a small amount of alcohol.
question

In which of the following situations are people MOST likely to follow the instructions they receive from healthcare professionals? A. When the medication or treatment program is expensive B. When they like, respect, and understand the healthcare professional C. When the instructions are complex and include technical medical terms D. When they do not fully understand the instructions but still feel the need to do something
answer

B. When they like, respect, and understand the healthcare professional
question

As a task becomes more complex, the optimal level of arousal to perform the task best A. first decreases and then increases. B. stays the same. C. increases. D. decreases.
answer

D. decreases.
question

College health clinics are probably MOST likely to experience an increase in students seeking treatment for colds and other minor illnesses A. during the middle week of the semester. B. during the weekend. C. during the middle of the week. D. during finals week.
answer

D. during finals week.
question

Research has demonstrated that the act of forgiving someone when one believes another person’s actions were harmful or unjust is associated with A. better adjustment and well-being. B. increased anxiety and depression. C. an increase in negative behaviors by the other person. D. negative emotions and reduced life satisfaction.
answer

A. better adjustment and well-being.
question

Lazarus and Folkman distinguished between _________ appraisal (where you determine whether an event is stressful) and _________ apprasial (where you evaluate your coping resources). A. trauma, reaction B. primary, tertiary C. primary, secondary D. secondary, primary
answer

C. primary, secondary
question

Scott is taking a course in American history, and his professor has given all the students in the class a choice between completing an in-class final exam that will count for 60% of their final grade or writing a 25-page term paper that will count for 60% of their final grade. As Scott considers which of these two options he will choose, he is facing A. an approach-approach conflict. B. an approach-avoidance conflict. C. an avoidance-avoidance conflict. D. a frustration-pressure conflict.
answer

C. an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
question

Demands or expectations to behave in a certain way define the notion of A. frustration. B. stress. C. conflict. D. pressure.
answer

D. pressure.
question

Brooke had been battling the rising floodwaters around her home for more than 72 hours. It seemed that no matter how many sandbags she stacked, it wasn’t enough. At this point, she just feels that there is nothing else that she can do. Her overall energy reserves are totally depleted, and her body just wants to give up. According to Selye’s general adaptation syndrome, Brooke is probably experiencing A. physiological exhaustion. B. autonomic rebound. C. a resistance reaction. D. an alarm reaction.
answer

A. physiological exhaustion.
question

Noncompliance with medical advice occurs approximately A. 5-10% of the time. B. 80-90% of the time. C. 75% of the time. D. 30-50% of the time.
answer

D. 30-50% of the time.
question

Which of the following is NOT one of the principle types of stress? A. Frustration B. Pressure C. Anxiety D. Change
answer

C. Anxiety
question

Which of the following is NOT a consequence associated with the release of catecholamines in the body? A. Oxygen consumption increases B. Digestive processes speed up C. Vsual sensitivity increases D. Heart rate increases
answer

B. Digestive processes speed up
question

The week of final exams subjects MOST students to what kind of stress? A. Change B. Conflict C. Frustration D. Pressure
answer

D. Pressure
question

What area of psychology is concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness? A. Industrial psychology B. Health psychology C. Psychoimmunology D. Positive psychology
answer

B. Health psychology
question

Suki routinely responds to stress with a learned helplessness response. Suki’s response will involve A. a release of emotional tension that often accompanies stress. B. passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events. C. protecting oneself from unpleasant situations by refusing to acknowledge them. D. atoning for unacceptable unconscious drives or impulses in socially acceptable ways.
answer

B. passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events.
question

Disturbed behavior that occurs after a major stressful event is referred to as A. burnout. B. a psychosomatic condition. C. posttraumatic stress disorder. D. hypochondriasis.
answer

C. posttraumatic stress disorder.
question

Which of the following is NOT offered by psychologists as an explanation for why people delay seeking needed medical treatment? A. Fear of possible medical treatments B. Misinterpretation of the significance of symptoms C. Fear of looking silly if the problem turns out to be nothing D. Worry about bothering their physician
answer

A. Fear of possible medical treatments
question

The person who is MOST likely to experience frustration is one who A. is a perfectionist. B. sets goals that are too low. C. must decide between two equally attractive alternatives. D. can predict the outcome of an event.
answer

A. is a perfectionist.
question

The key to ____ is to detect catastrophic thinking and dispute the irrational assumptions that cause it. A. rational emotive therapy B. irrational belief therapy C. psychoanalytic therapy D. relaxation therapy
answer

A. rational emotive therapy
question

Which of the following is LEAST accurate in regard to defense mechanisms? A. They invariably reduce coping effectiveness B. They are aimed at protecting one from unwelcome emotions C. They use self-deception D. They are normal in that everyone uses them
answer

A. They invariably reduce coping effectiveness
question

Which of the following statements concerning the effects of stress is MOST accurate? A. The effects of stress are uniformly negative. B. Stress can promote personal growth and self-improvement. C. People only show positive stress reactions when they have strong social support. D. Compared to women, men are more vulnerable to the effects of chronic stress.
answer

B. Stress can promote personal growth and self-improvement.
question

There is one week left in the semester, and Andre has put off working on his five term papers until the very last minute. Although it has always taken him three to four days to write a single term paper, Andre is convinced that he can write all five papers in the week that remains. In this instance, Andre may be dealing with stress-induced anxiety using A. overcompensation. B. self-indulgence. C. intellectualization. D. denial of reality.
answer

D. denial of reality.
question

Dustin was driving his car on an icy road when the back end started to skid out of control. His car crossed the centerline, and he could see the headlights of rapidly approaching oncoming traffic. His entire body became energized. His heart rate and respiration increased, and he began to perspire profusely. According to Selye’s general adaptation syndrome, Dustin was experiencing A. a resistance reaction. B. autonomic rebound. C. an alarm reaction. D. physiological exhaustion.
answer

C. an alarm reaction.
question

LuAnn exhibits effective problem-focused coping and seeks the help of others when necessary. Her behavior is consistent with someone who is A. a Type B personality. B. a pessimist. C. an optimist. D. a Type A personality.
answer

C. an optimist.
question

Cannon’s fight-or-flight reaction is mediated by the A. parasympathetic nervous system. B. peripheral nervous system. C. skeletal nervous system. D. sympathetic nervous system.
answer

D. sympathetic nervous system.
question

The general adaptation syndrome describes one’s A. emotional responses to stress. B. emotional, behavioral, and physiological responses to stress. C. behavioral responses to stress. D. physiological responses to stress.
answer

D. physiological responses to stress.
question

If you cannot decide whether to submit to back surgery, which you dread, to alleviate your back pain or to continue to live with the pain, which you sometimes find unbearable, you are caught in A. an avoidance-avoidance conflict. B. an approach-approach conflict. C. a double approach-avoidance conflict. D. an approach-avoidance conflict.
answer

A. an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
question

Physiological responses to stress occur via two major pathways through which the ____ conveys signals to the ____. A. pituitary gland; endocrine system B. pituitary gland; autonomic nervous system C. hypothalamus; autonomic nervous system D. hypothalamus; endocrine system
answer

D. hypothalamus; endocrine system
question

According to Baumeister, the pressure to perform can elevate self-consciousness, which then disrupts our attention by A. causing us to perform too automatically. B. activating our autonomic nervous system. C. diverting attention from the demands of the task. D. creating an approach-avoidance conflict.
answer

C. diverting attention from the demands of the task.
question

The Flashback football team was down by 35 points at half-time, but they made a big comeback in the second half. With less than 15 seconds remaining on the clock, they scored a touchdown that narrowed the other team’s lead to a single point. Their quarterback has decided to try for a two-point conversion in an attempt to win the game by a single point in the final seconds. As the team lines up for the last play of the game, both the quarterback and the intended receiver are likely to be experiencing A. pressure. B. conflict. C. burnout. D. frustration.
answer

A. pressure.
question

Herbert Benson believes the key to the beneficial effects of meditation is A. sleep. B. religious inspiration. C. mental alertness. D. relaxation.
answer

D. relaxation.
question

The stress that a person actually experiences in different situations is critically influenced by the A. person’s physical health when the stressor is present. B. number of life change units the event involves. C. overall magnitude of the stressful event. D. appraisals that the person makes.
answer

D. appraisals that the person makes.
question

Leigh works as a tax accountant and has to complete complex worksheets for each of her clients. Adriana works in a factory where she performs a fairly simple visual inspection of the finished product. Assuming both Leigh and Adriana experienced a high level of arousal after hearing some distressing news, you should expect that A. neither Leigh nor Adriana will show any impairment in the performance of their respective jobs. B. Leigh’s performance will be impaired more than Adriana’s performance. C. Adriana’s performance will be impaired more than Leigh’s performance. D. both Leigh and Adriana will show significant impairment in the performance of their respective jobs.
answer

B. Leigh’s performance will be impaired more than Adriana’s performance.
question

Pete is the lead prosecution attorney in a murder case. So far, the case has not been going well for him, and the defense attorneys have presented effective rebuttals for most of the points he has raised. The judge adjourned the case for the weekend, and Pete will have to present his closing arguments first thing Monday morning. While he is trying to write his closing statement, he daydreams about a surprise eyewitness to the crime suddenly stepping forward and clinching the case for him. In this example, Pete is MOST likely A. experiencing frustration, and he is using fantasy to deal with the anxiety the frustration has generated. B. experiencing conflict, and he is using overcompensation to deal with the anxiety the conflict has generated. C. experiencing conflict, and he is using undoing to deal with the anxiety the conflict has generated. D. experiencing frustration, and he is using intellectualization to deal with the anxiety the frustration has generated.
answer

A. experiencing frustration, and he is using fantasy to deal with the anxiety the frustration has generated.
question

Which of the following is NOT a common psychological problem that has been shown to be related to chronic stress? A. Phobias B. Poor academic performance C. Sexual difficulties D. Insomnia and other sleep disturbances
answer

A. Phobias
question

What does the research have to say about the general effect of everyday problems and the minor nuisances of life? A. Minor stresses often have significant harmful effects on mental health but don’t affect physical health. B. Minor stresses have negative effects only when coupled with major stresses. C. Minor stresses produce minor effects. D. Minor stresses may have significant harmful effects on both physical and mental health.
answer

D. Minor stresses may have significant harmful effects on both physical and mental health.
question

When final exam time rolls around, Murray finds himself eating all the time. This reaction to stress can be referred to as A. self-indulgence. B. reaction formation. C. learned helplessness. D. constructive coping.
answer

A. self-indulgence.
question

Psychological inhibition of emotions has been linked to A. an increase in autonomic arousal. B. successful coping with stress-related events. C. hardy personalities. D. Type A personalities.
answer

A. an increase in autonomic arousal.

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