Psych Chapter 12 Quiz

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
According to the Featured Study, there is often a discrepancy between

A. what people say and do.
B. what people say and think.
C. what people want and what they ask for.
D. what people think and what they want.

B. what people say and think.
If she is using the defense mechanisms of reaction formation, a mother who actually hates her son would MOST likely be both unaware of her hatred and

A. direct her hatred toward her daughter.
B. act in an extremely critical way toward her son.
C. act in an extremely loving way toward her son.
D. believe that her son hated her.

C. act in an extremely loving way toward her son.
Rosalind is an impulsive child who seldom waits for her turn when playing with other children. Rosalind’s father is also an impulsive individual who often seems to act before he thinks. The theorist who would MOST likely suggest that Rosalind has learned to be impulsive from watching her father is

A. B. F. Skinner.
B. Albert Bandura.
C. Carl Rogers.
D. Sigmund Freud.

B. Albert Bandura.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of narcissism?

A. Impulsivity
B. An easily threatened self-concept
C. A strong need to forge bonds with others
D. Craving for approval from others

C. A strong need to forge bonds with others
The component of personality that operates according to the reality principle is the

A. superego.
B. conscious.
C. id.
D. ego.

D. ego.
According to Maslow’s theory, the self-actualizing person would be LEAST likely to

A. have somewhat mystical experiences.
B. be spontaneous.
C. be uncomfortable when alone or detached.
D. have a limited number of strong friendships.

C. be uncomfortable when alone or detached.
Which of the following approaches to personality is MOST likely to be criticized for denying the existence of free will and the importance of cognitive processes?

A. Humanistic approach
B. Cognitive approach
C. Behavioral approach
D. Psychoanalytic approach

C. Behavioral approach
Professor Stephenson argues that personality is the result of reciprocal determinism, that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another and determine an individual’s personality. Whose theory of personality is she presenting?

A. Carol Rogers
B. Albert Bandura
C. John Watson
D. B. F. Skinner

B. Albert Bandura
Which of the following theoretical perspectives would be LEAST likely to rely on animal research?

A. Humanistic approach
B. Behavioral approach
C. Biological approach
D. Cognitive approach

A. Humanistic approach
Freud used the term “sexual” in his psychosexual stages of development to mean

A. general sexual feelings.
B. any pleasure-giving urge.
C. none of these things
D. genital sexual impulses.

B. any pleasure-giving urge.
Research in behavioral genetics has shown the family environment shared by children growing up together has ____ impact on personality.

A. little
B. a moderately large
C. a large
D. no

A. little
Hal is fearful of men who are friendly toward him, convinced that they are all homosexuals attempting to seduce him. Should it be the case that Hal is himself a latent homosexual, fearful of admitting this even to himself, we might conclude that he is using the defense mechanisms of repression and

A. regression.
B. reaction formation.
C. displacement.
D. projection.

D. projection.
Which of the following is NOT one of the major contributions associated with the humanistic theory of personality?

A. Acknowledging the role that internal conflict plays in generating psychological distress
B. Focusing attention on what constitutes a healthy personality
C. The importance of a person’s subjective views
D. Making the self-concept an important construct in psychology

A. Acknowledging the role that internal conflict plays in generating psychological distress
Which of the following would be considered the MOST healthy defense mechanism?

A. Sublimation
B. Denial
C. Regression
D. Repression

A. Sublimation
Which of the following is NOT a weakness associated with projective tests?

A. Cultural bias
B. Low reliability
C. Inconsistent scoring
D. Deliberate deception

D. Deliberate deception
Which of the following is NOT one of the main weaknesses in biological approaches to personality?

A. Conceptual problems with heritability estimates
B. Children’s genes can affect their environment
C. The difficulty of separating the effects of nature and nurture
D. An overly optimistic view of human nature

D. An overly optimistic view of human nature
Fred was the highest paid news anchor in prime-time television. He had been with the same national network for 20 years. His coworkers couldn’t believe it when Fred cleared out his office one day and announced he was going to become a volunteer with an international relief agency. He explained, “I feel I need to make a fundamental change in my life if I am going to continue to grow as a person.” Fred’s actions are consistent with

A. Adler’s concept of overcompensation
B. Rogers’ concept of incongruence
C. Maslow’s concept of self-actualizing individuals
D. Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism

C. Maslow’s concept of self-actualizing individuals
Five-year-old Samuel often tells his older sister, “I can’t wait to grow up, so I can marry mommy.” Samuel is most likely in the stage of personality development that Freud referred to as the

A. latency stage.
B. anal stage.
C. oral stage.
D. phallic stage.

D. phallic stage.
The idea that a person’s unconscious needs will determine how he or she perceives relatively unstructured stimuli is the basis for

A. the TAT.
B. the MMPI.
C. personality trait tests.
D. personal trait checklist.

A. the TAT.
Parents in Asian cultures are MOST likely to teach their children to

A. rely on family and friends.
B. view themselves as special individuals.
C. be self-reliant.
D. feel good about themselves.

A. rely on family and friends.
According to Rogers, children who experience ____ love or affection tend to develop an incongruent self-concept as a result of blocking from their self-concept those experiences that did not receive parental affection.

A. conditional
B. inconsistent
C. unconditional
D. consistent

A. conditional
When people give a false but plausible excuse to justify their unacceptable behavior, they are using

A. reaction formation.
B. displacement.
C. rationalization.
D. projection.

C. rationalization.
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the five-factor model of personality?

A. There may be fewer than five primary traits.
B. It overemphasizes the role of unconscious motivation in personality.
C. More than five traits are necessary to account for the variation seen in human personality.
D. There are important traits that do not fit into the model.

B. It overemphasizes the role of unconscious motivation in personality.
Recent research suggests that levels of narcissim in college students have _________ over the past few decades.

A. decreased considerably
B. increased
C. decreased slightly
D. remained stable

B. increased
According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in ____ tend to be sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, and modest.

A. extraversion
B. conscientiousness
C. neuroticism
D. agreeableness

D. agreeableness
According to Freud, the ____ is “like a man on horseback who has to hold in check the superior strength of the horse.”

A. ego
B. alter ego
C. superego
D. id

A. ego
The idea that a male child desires his mother and fears his father illustrates the

A. Electra complex.
B. Oedipal complex.
C. genital complex.
D. latency complex.

B. Oedipal complex.
When anthropologists compare ancient artifacts from South America, Europe, and Australia, they often find similarities among the images that are depicted. Based on Jung’s analytical psychology, some of these apparent similarities may stem from

A. the preconscious.
B. the collective unconscious.
C. reciprocal determinism.
D. manifest consciousness.

B. the collective unconscious.
The idea that ambiguous materials can serve as a blank screen onto which people impose their characteristic concerns, conflicts, and desires is termed the

A. projective hypothesis.
B. self-revealing hypothesis.
C. self-report hypothesis.
D. objective hypothesis.

A. projective hypothesis.
According to the evolutionary approach to personality, humans have evolved special sensitivity to variations in the tendency to be reliable and ethical, which is closely associated with which of the following Big Five personality traits?

A. Conscientiousness
B. Neuroticism
C. Agreeableness
D. Extraversion

A. Conscientiousness
Freud believed that smoking, overeating, and habitual gum chewing could result from fixation in the ____ stage.

A. oral
B. anal
C. genital
D. phallic

A. oral
Research on genes and personality indicates that the heritability estimates for personality traits are

A. just less than 15%.
B. between 25 and 30%.
C. between 40 and 60%.
D. just over 75%.

C. between 40 and 60%.
Increasing mortality salience leads people to

A. show more respect for cultural icons.
B. respond more positively to people who criticize their country.
C. work less at defending their world view.
D. hand out lighter penalties to moral transgressors.

A. show more respect for cultural icons.
One of the major points Mischel makes about personality is that

A. people are much less consistent across situations than most theorists have assumed.
B. many personal traits are genetically determined.
C. people behave more consistently across situations than we have thought.
D. the idea of traits is fundamental to understanding personality.

A. people are much less consistent across situations than most theorists have assumed.
In explaining an individual’s aggressiveness, Skinner would look for

A. feelings of repressed hostility.
B. an inadequate sense of self-worth.
C. instinctual explanations.
D. early learning experiences and reinforcement history.

D. early learning experiences and reinforcement history.
Which of Freud’s personality components is suggested to engage in secondary process thinking?

A. Id and ego
B. Ego
C. Superego
D. Id

B. Ego
Jordon has taken a job that is extremely dangerous, but that pays him enough so that he is sure he will have enough to eat and he will be able to sleep in a warm place each night. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Jordon is probably primarily motivated by

A. the need for self-actualization.
B. safety and security needs.
C. physiological needs.
D. cognitive needs.

C. physiological needs.
Jung termed emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning in a wide variety of cultures

A. subjective symbols.
B. hierarchy fixtures.
C. archetypes.
D. phallic symbols.

C. archetypes.
The term that Albert Bandura uses to refer to the assumption that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence each other is

A. mutual dependency.
B. reciprocal relativism.
C. reciprocal determinism.
D. psychic determinism.

C. reciprocal determinism.
Your needs to learn all you can about philosophy and understand the inner workings of our political system are examples of ____ needs.

A. aesthetic
B. esteem
C. self-actualization
D. cognitive

D. cognitive
The largely unconscious reactions used to protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt are

A. coping mechanisms.
B. offense mechanisms.
C. id mechanisms.
D. defense mechanisms.

D. defense mechanisms.
Social-cognitive theory differs from Skinner’s approach in giving more weight to

A. cognitive processes.
B. genetic factors.
C. respondent conditioning.
D. secondary reinforcers.

A. cognitive processes.
Carmen has always done well in her math courses and even though she has never taken a statistics class before, she is confident she will do well in the one she just signed up for next semester. In this example, Carmen shows evidence of having

A. a mathematical neurosis.
B. low self-efficacy in math.
C. high self-efficacy in math.
D. high incongruence with respect to math.

C. high self-efficacy in math.
Mr. Gorst is a very patient individual who always has time for any questions his children might ask. If Mr. Gorst’s children grow up to be patient individuals, the development of this personality trait would be BEST explained using the concept of

A. rationalization.
B. positive reinforcement.
C. extinction.
D. observational learning.

D. observational learning.
The id is

A. the moral component of personality.
B. the decision-making component of personality.
C. the primitive, instinctive component of personality.
D. a developmental period that leaves its mark on adult personality.

C. the primitive, instinctive component of personality.
Which personality theorist stated, “It’s as if Freud supplied us the sick half of psychology and we must now fill it out with the healthy half?”

A. Alfred Adler
B. Albert Bandura
C. Abraham Maslow
D. Carl Rogers

C. Abraham Maslow
Isaiah just completed a personality scale designed to measure the three higher-order traits identified by Hans Eysenck. He scored low in the personality trait of psychoticism, suggesting that Isaiah tends to be

A. quiet and nonassertive.
B. anxious and moody.
C. warm and sociable.
D. sensitive and caring.

C. warm and sociable.
Beatrix is planning a research study for her doctoral dissertation. As part of the study, she wants to measure normal aspects of personality in each of the participants, using a measure that is objective and precise. The BEST measure for Beatrix to use would be the

A. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
B. NEO Personality Inventory.
C. Rorschach test.
D. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).

B. NEO Personality Inventory.
Recent research suggests that the size of brain structures that regulate planning and voluntary control are associated with people’s levels of

A. depression.
B. agreeableness.
C. optimism.
D. conscientiousness.

D. conscientiousness.
The psychoanalytic and behavioral theories of behavior have BOTH been criticized for which of the following?

A. Fragmented view of personality
B. The failure to recognize the unique qualities of human behavior
C. Preoccupation with animal research
D. The belief that behavior is dominated by primitive, animalistic drives

B. The failure to recognize the unique qualities of human behavior
According to Freud, a person may become fixated at a particular psychosexual stage because of

A. permissiveness on the part of the person’s parents.
B. either excessive gratification or excessive frustration of needs.
C. a genetic predisposition for fixation.
D. abnormalities in brain chemistry that develop prenatally.

B. either excessive gratification or excessive frustration of needs.
Raul is 30 years old and seems to be obsessed with the image he presents to others. He buys a new sports car every year, lives in the biggest house in his neighborhood, and always buys the most expensive clothes he can find. According to Alfred Adler, Raul’s behavior may be a sign of

A. overcompensation.
B. incongruence.
C. reaction formation.
D. fixation at the oral stage of development.

A. overcompensation.
Which of the following would be considered the MOST healthy defense mechanism?

A. Denial
B. Regression
C. Repression
D. Sublimation

D. Sublimation
Sigmund Freud would have been LEAST likely to make which of the following statements?

A. Behavior is the outcome of an interaction among several components of personality.
B. A great deal of our behavior and thoughts are symbolic of hidden motives.
C. Most of our behavior is rationally directed.
D. Most behavior is rooted in the unconscious.

C. Most of our behavior is rationally directed.
Freud ascribed great importance to sexual and aggressive impulses, mainly because they

A. tend to be reinforced by others.
B. tend to be routinely frustrated.
C. are essential to the survival of the species.
D. dominate our dreams.

B. tend to be routinely frustrated.
Bandura extended Skinner’s view of behaviorism to explain personality by adding an emphasis on

A. unconscious processes.
B. reinforcement.
C. situational factors.
D. cognitive processes.

D. cognitive processes.
Cross-cultural research suggests that the Big Five personality traits

A. only exist in Western cultures.
B. are unique to each culture.
C. are fairly inconsistent across cultures.
D. are fairly consistent across cultures.

D. are fairly consistent across cultures.
The findings from twin studies indicate that identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins on which of the following?

A. All the personality traits in the five-factor model of personality
B. Conscientiousness
C. Neuroticism
D. Extraversion

A. All the personality traits in the five-factor model of personality
Rashad thinks of himself as an outgoing, sociable person. All his friends would agree; most of them think he is one of the most friendly, upbeat people they have ever met. According to Carl Rogers, Rashad is likely to

A. be high in self-monitoring.
B. experience congruence.
C. experience incongruence.
D. be high in self-efficacy.

B. experience congruence.
The impending possibility of a forbidden impulse getting out of control and being expressed in behavior would be most apt to produce ____ in the person.

A. impulse gratification
B. depression
C. anxiety
D. secondary gain

C. anxiety
According to Jung, one’s collective unconscious contains

A. ancestral memories.
B. repressed or forgotten information.
C. archetypes.
D. the id and the superego.

A. ancestral memories.
When anthropologists compare ancient artifacts from South America, Europe, and Australia, they often find similarities among the images that are depicted. Based on Jung’s analytical psychology, some of these apparent similarities may stem from

A. manifest consciousness.
B. reciprocal determinism.
C. the preconscious.
D. the collective unconscious.

D. the collective unconscious.
Ten-year-old Benjamin is often nervous about bringing report cards home to his parents. Although his parents say they love him, he feels that they only really love him when he obtains excellent grades in school. Based on the theory developed by Carl Rogers, Benjamin perceives his parents’ affection as

A. unconditional, and he is likely to develop congruence in his self-concept.
B. conditional, and he is likely to develop congruence in his self-concept.
C. unconditional, and he is likely to develop incongruence in his self-concept.
D. conditional, and he is likely to develop incongruence in his self-concept.

D. conditional, and he is likely to develop incongruence in his self-concept.
Focusing on positive feedback from others and seeing oneself as above average are characteristic of

A. self-enhancement.
B. collectivism.
C. an interdependent construal of self.
D. oral sadism.

A. self-enhancement.
The idea that ambiguous materials can serve as a blank screen onto which people impose their characteristic concerns, conflicts, and desires is termed the

A. self-report hypothesis.
B. self-revealing hypothesis.
C. projective hypothesis.
D. objective hypothesis.

C. projective hypothesis.
During the genital stage, sexual energy is primarily

A. exhibited through self-stimulation.
B. suppressed.
C. focused toward peers of the opposite sex.
D. focused toward the parent of the opposite sex.

C. focused toward peers of the opposite sex.
Research on the heritability of personality shows that ____ appears to have a surprisingly small impact on personality.

A. unique experiences
B. heredity
C. shared family environment
D. unconscious motivation

C. shared family environment
One of the chief goals of terror management theory is to explain why people

A. have an instinctive drive for self-preservation.
B. have an awareness of the inevitability of their death.
C. need self-esteem.
D. experience anxiety, alarm, and terror.

C. need self-esteem.
Four-year-old Sam has erotically tinged desires for his mother and also feels hostility toward his father. Freud would conclude that Sam is experiencing the

A. Oedipal complex.
B. phallic complex.
C. genital complex.
D. identification complex.

A. Oedipal complex.
Mark has been unsuccessful in using compensation to help him master life’s challenges; according to Adler’s theory, Mark may exhibit

A. an Oedipal complex.
B. an archetype.
C. an inferiority complex.
D. a superiority complex.

C. an inferiority complex.
According to Maslow’s theory, the self-actualizing person would be LEAST likely to

A. be uncomfortable when alone or detached.
B. have a limited number of strong friendships.
C. be spontaneous.
D. have somewhat mystical experiences.

A. be uncomfortable when alone or detached.
Alan has always done poorly in his math courses; he must take a statistics course next term to graduate. He is not confident he will do well in it and is very nervous about taking the course. In this example, Alan shows evidence of having

A. low self-efficacy in math.
B. high incongruence with respect to math.
C. a mathematical neurosis.
D. high self-efficacy in math.

A. low self-efficacy in math.
Mike has just lost a close friend to death and has begun thinking about his own death; as a result, Mike is likely to

A. suggest lighter penalties to moral transgressors.
B. show more respect for cultural icons.
C. work less at defending his world view.
D. respond more positively to people who criticize his country.

B. show more respect for cultural icons.
The crucial developmental task associated with the anal stage is

A. the Oedipal complex.
B. gaining superiority.
C. toilet training.
D. weaning from the breast or bottle.

C. toilet training.
Colton is completing a long personality inventory, and he doesn’t really want to take the time to read each of the questions in detail. Instead, he simply disagrees with all the statements. Colton’s method of completing the personality inventory shows

A. the use of deliberate deception.
B. a social desirability bias.
C. a negative response set.
D. a self-monitoring bias.

C. a negative response set.
Which of the following personality theorists did NOT emphasize the influence of childhood experiences on adult personality?

A. Carl Rogers
B. Sigmund Freud
C. Abraham Maslow
D. Alfred Adler

C. Abraham Maslow
Which of the following would be considered the MOST healthy defense mechanism?

A. Regression
B. Repression
C. Denial
D. Sublimation

D. Sublimation
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of narcissism?

A. Craving for approval from others
B. Impulsivity
C. A strong need to forge bonds with others
D. An easily threatened self-concept

C. A strong need to forge bonds with others
According to Jung, one’s personal unconscious contains

A. ancestral memories.
B. repressed or forgotten information.
C. archetypes.
D. the id and the superego.

B. repressed or forgotten information.
Assume that personality researchers have isolated a new trait they call “prajna.” If these researchers report that fraternal twins reared together are more similar in this trait than identical twins reared apart, it would indicate that

A. genetics has a larger influence than environment in the expression of prajna.
B. environment has a larger influence than genetics in the expression of prajna.
C. neither genetics nor environment influences the expression of prajna.
D. genetics and environment exert equivalent influences in the expression of prajna.

B. environment has a larger influence than genetics in the expression of prajna.
Eysenck’s theory of personality is based on all of the following EXCEPT

A. differences in physiological functioning.
B. basic personality traits.
C. differences in ease of conditioning.
D. differences in basic needs.

D. differences in basic needs.
During the genital stage, sexual energy is primarily

A. focused toward the parent of the opposite sex.
B. exhibited through self-stimulation.
C. suppressed.
D. focused toward peers of the opposite sex.

D. focused toward peers of the opposite sex.
The belief that one has the ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes is referred to as

A. self-justification.
B. self-control
C. self-efficacy.
D. self-monitoring.

C. self-efficacy.
If she is using the defense mechanism of projection, a mother who actually hates her son would MOST likely be both unaware of her hatred and

A. act in an extremely loving way toward her son.
B. act in an extremely critical way toward her son.
C. direct her hatred toward her daughter.
D. believe that her son hated her.

D. believe that her son hated her.
Cross-cultural research suggests that the Big Five personality traits

A. only exist in Western cultures.
B. are fairly consistent across cultures.
C. are unique to each culture.
D. are fairly inconsistent across cultures.

B. are fairly consistent across cultures.
Chris has a greatly inflated sense of self-worth, a sense of entitlement, and a constant need for attention. It is most likely that Chris has

A. egocentric personality disorder.
B. fixated personality disorder.
C. narcissistic personality disorder.
D. dependent personality disorder.

C. narcissistic personality disorder.
Research on national character using the Big Five personality traits found that

A. people’s beliefs about national character were fueled by unconscious impulses.
B. subjects displayed considerable disagreement concerning what was typical of their culture.
C. people’s beliefs about national character were fueled by egalitarian principles.
D. subjects displayed considerable agreement concerning what was typical of their culture.

D. subjects displayed considerable agreement concerning what was typical of their culture.
How is Hans Eysenck’s theory similar to behavioral theory?

A. Both theories focus on the role of the unconscious on behavior
B. Both theories argue that conditioning influences the development of personality
C. Both theories use a trait approach
D. Both theories examine the roles of the introversion-extroversion trait dimension

B. Both theories argue that conditioning influences the development of personality
The major criticism humanistic personality theorists have concerning BOTH psychodynamic and behavioral theories of personality is that those theories

A. are not supported by scientific or empirical evidence.
B. focus on the unconscious.
C. are dehumanizing and deterministic.
D. are unrealistically optimistic about human behavior.

C. are dehumanizing and deterministic.
Terror management theory asserts that much of our behavior is motivated by our needs

A. for self-preservation and preserve our self-esteem.
B. for self-preservation and reduce mortality salience.
C. to defend our worldview and reduce mortality salience.
D. to defend our worldview and preserve our self-esteem.

D. to defend our worldview and preserve our self-esteem.
Which of the following approaches to personality is MOST firmly rooted in empirical research?

A. Psychoanalytic approach
B. Humanistic approach
C. Behavioral approach
D. Cognitive approach

C. Behavioral approach
The idea that a person’s unconscious needs will determine how he or she perceives relatively unstructured stimuli is the basis for

A. personal trait checklist.
B. the MMPI.
C. the TAT.
D. personality trait tests.

C. the TAT.
Your needs to learn all you can about philosophy and understand the inner workings of our political system are examples of ____ needs.

A. esteem
B. cognitive
C. self-actualization
D. aesthetic

B. cognitive
The findings from twin studies indicate that identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins on which of the following?

A. Neuroticism
B. Extraversion
C. All the personality traits in the five-factor model of personality
D. Conscientiousness

C. All the personality traits in the five-factor model of personality
Howard sets extremely high standards for both himself and others. He tends to be rigid and inflexible and rarely allows himself to enjoy life. Freud would probably conclude that Howard is dominated by

A. his superego.
B. penis envy.
C. his ego.
D. his id.

A. his superego.
As an adult, going back to an earlier way of gratifying needs defines

A. fixation.
B. regression.
C. repression.
D. reaction formation.

B. regression.
Julio is extremely dependable and productive, and his friends think he is great at organizing events. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Julio would probably score

A. high in conscientiousness.
B. high in openness.
C. low in neuroticism.
D. high in agreeableness.

A. high in conscientiousness.
The idea that ambiguous materials can serve as a blank screen onto which people impose their characteristic concerns, conflicts, and desires is termed the

A. self-report hypothesis.
B. self-revealing hypothesis.
C. projective hypothesis.
D. objective hypothesis.

C. projective hypothesis.
Five-year-old Samuel often tells his older sister, “I can’t wait to grow up, so I can marry mommy.” Samuel is most likely in the stage of personality development that Freud referred to as the

A. latency stage.
B. phallic stage.
C. anal stage.
D. oral stage.

B. phallic stage.
Having a rather poor sense of self-worth, Bruce attempts to make himself feel important by driving a European sports car, belonging to an exclusive tennis club, and eating at the best restaurants. Bruce may be using the defense mechanism of

A. projection.
B. identification.
C. displacement.
D. rationalization.

B. identification.
The process of pushing distressing thoughts into the unconscious and keeping them there is known as

A. suppression.
B. neurogenic amnesia.
C. repression.
D. avoidance.

C. repression.
According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in ____ tend to be sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, and modest.

A. extraversion
B. conscientiousness
C. agreeableness
D. neuroticism

C. agreeableness
In explaining an individual’s aggressiveness, Skinner would look for

A. feelings of repressed hostility.
B. an inadequate sense of self-worth.
C. instinctual explanations.
D. early learning experiences and reinforcement history.

D. early learning experiences and reinforcement history.
Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality was influenced to a degree by his reaction to the hostilities of World War I, a fact that illustrates which of the following unifying themes of your textbook?

A. Psychology is the study of subjective experience.
B. Psychology is empirical.
C. Psychology is theoretically diverse.
D. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

D. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
According to Hans Eysenck, people who condition easily are likely to be

A. psychotic.
B. neurotic.
C. introverted.
D. extraverted.

C. introverted.
Terror management theory suggests that self-esteem serves a terror management function by reducing

A. mortality salience.
B. cultural worldviews.
C. awareness of the inevitability of death.
D. anxiety.

D. anxiety.
Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to reduce a huge list of personality traits compiled by Gordon Allport to ____ basic dimensions of personality.

A. 10
B. 16
C. 5
D. 27

B. 16
Fred was the highest paid news anchor in prime-time television. He had been with the same national network for 20 years. His coworkers couldn’t believe it when Fred cleared out his office one day and announced he was going to become a volunteer with an international relief agency. He explained, “I feel I need to make a fundamental change in my life if I am going to continue to grow as a person.” Fred’s actions are consistent with

A. Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism
B. Rogers’ concept of incongruence
C. Maslow’s concept of self-actualizing individuals
D. Adler’s concept of overcompensation

C. Maslow’s concept of self-actualizing individuals
Which of the following is MOST accurate?

A. The evidence suggests that genetic factors do not influence personality.
B. It is only a matter of time before the complicated intertwining of nature and nurture will be understood.
C. The evidence suggests that environmental factors do not influence personality.
D. Efforts to divide behavior into genetic and environmental components are ultimately artificial.

D. Efforts to divide behavior into genetic and environmental components are ultimately artificial.
Which of the following is considered a major strength of projective tests?

A. The difficulty in engaging in deliberate deception
B. The consistency of the scores provided
C. The degree of standardization in administration and scoring
D. The substantial evidence for their validity

A. The difficulty in engaging in deliberate deception
Primary process thinking is associated with the ____, and secondary process thinking is associated with the ____.

A. ego; id
B. id; ego
C. superego; id
D. ego; superego

B. id; ego
Skinner would explain why one student responds positively to receiving a B on a test while another student responds negatively to a B by noting that

A. the students have different histories of reinforcement and punishment.
B. one student has more self-efficacy than the other.
C. one student has a stronger superego than the other.
D. the students have different personality traits.

A. the students have different histories of reinforcement and punishment.
The fact that there are literally dozens of insightful theories of personality illustrates which of the following unifying themes of your textbook?

A. Our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage.
B. Psychology is empirical.
C. Psychology is theoretically diverse.
D. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

C. Psychology is theoretically diverse.
Which of the following personality theorists did NOT emphasize the influence of childhood experiences on adult personality?

A. Carl Rogers
B. Alfred Adler
C. Abraham Maslow
D. Sigmund Freud

C. Abraham Maslow
Dr. Hawkins believes that the Big Five personality traits stand out as important dimensions of personality because those traits have a significant adaptive implication that is largely determined by an individual’s genetic makeup. Dr. Hawkins’s views are similar to the view of personality put forward by

A. Carl Jung.
B. B. F. Skinner.
C. David Buss.
D. Walter Mischel.

A. Carl Jung.
According to Maslow’s theory, the self-actualizing person would be LEAST likely to

A. be spontaneous.
B. be uncomfortable when alone or detached.
C. have somewhat mystical experiences.
D. have a limited number of strong friendships.

B. be uncomfortable when alone or detached.
Which of the following is NOT a commonly accepted concept associated with psychodynamic personality theories?

A. Internal conflict often plays a key role in generating psychological distress.
B. A person’s subjective view of the world is more important than objective reality.
C. Early childhood experiences can influence adult personality.
D. Unconscious forces can influence behavior.

B. A person’s subjective view of the world is more important than objective reality.
Nettle (2006) believes which trait may be adaptive because it fueled competitiveness in our ancestors?

A. Extraversion
B. Openness to experience
C. Neuroticism
D. Conscientiousness

C. Neuroticism
The tendency to mold our interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out is called

A. reaction formation.
B. projection.
C. self-enhancement.
D. the hindsight bias.

D. the hindsight bias.
Defense mechanisms combat feelings of anxiety and guilt

A. by enhancing self-insight.
B. through rational problem-solving.
C. through self-deception.
D. by making unconscious urges conscious.

C. through self-deception.
The theorist who advanced the concept that the unconscious has two layers, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious, was

A. Erik Erikson.
B. Alfred Adler.
C. Carl Jung.
D. Sigmund Freud.

C. Carl Jung.
What need was Abraham Maslow expressing when he said, “What a man can be, he must be”?

A. The need for unconditional love
B. The need to achieve
C. The need to self-actualize
D. The need for superiority

C. The need to self-actualize
Terror management theory suggests that self-esteem serves a terror management function by reducing

A. awareness of the inevitability of death.
B. cultural worldviews.
C. anxiety.
D. mortality salience.

C. anxiety.
According to Rogers, parents who give their children affection both when the children meet and also when they fail to meet expectations provide their children with

A. generalized love or affection.
B. continual love or affection.
C. unconditional love or affection.
D. conditional love or affection.

C. unconditional love or affection.
The Freudian period in which a child’s sexuality is largely suppressed and he or she focuses on expanding social contacts is the

A. phallic stage.
B. anal stage.
C. latency stage.
D. genital stage.

C. latency stage.
Which of the following theoretical perspectives would be LEAST likely to rely on animal research?

A. Behavioral approach
B. Cognitive approach
C. Humanistic approach
D. Biological approach

C. Humanistic approach
Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward psychologically, a phenomenon that Freud called

A. fixation.
B. reciprocal determinism.
C. compensation.
D. displacement.

A. fixation.
Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she can’t have her own way. She behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she can’t have the things that she wants immediately. According to Freud’s view of personality, Cari’s personality appears to be dominated by

A. her superego.
B. her ego.
C. reaction formation.
D. her id.

D. her id.
According to Adler, compensation

A. refers to one’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes.
B. involves bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group.
C. refers to largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions.
D. involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities.

D. involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities.
Which of the following is NOT a weakness associated with projective tests?

A. Deliberate deception
B. Cultural bias
C. Inconsistent scoring
D. Low reliability

A. Deliberate deception
Thomas describes himself as an open and relaxed individual, but people who know him well would describe Thomas as secretive and tense. According to Carl Rogers, Thomas is likely to

A. be low in self-monitoring.
B. experience congruence.
C. be low in self-efficacy.
D. experience incongruence.

D. experience incongruence.
Psychodynamic personality theories focus on

A. learning.
B. an individual’s freedom and potential for growth.
C. unconscious mental forces.
D. genetic factors.

C. unconscious mental forces.
Freud believed that during the phallic stage, children develop erotically tinged desires for

A. siblings.
B. playmates.
C. the parent of the same sex.
D. the parent of the opposite sex.

D. the parent of the opposite sex.
According to Rogers, children who experience ____ love or affection tend to develop an incongruent self-concept as a result of blocking from their self-concept those experiences that did not receive parental affection.

A. unconditional
B. inconsistent
C. conditional
D. consistent

C. conditional
According to the Featured Study, there is often a discrepancy between

A. what people want and what they ask for.
B. what people say and think.
C. what people say and do.
D. what people think and what they want.

B. what people say and think.
According to the Featured Study, people from ___________ cultures seem to have greater self-insight than people from other cultures.

A. independent
B. Western
C. individualistic
D. collectivisitic

D. collectivisitic
Julio is extremely dependable and productive, and his friends think he is great at organizing events. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Julio would probably score

A. low in neuroticism.
B. high in openness.
C. high in agreeableness.
D. high in conscientiousness.

D. high in conscientiousness.
According to Rogers, experiences that threaten a person’s self-concept often result in the person experiencing

A. depression.
B. anxiety.
C. self-actualization.
D. a reevaluation of their self-concept.

B. anxiety.
According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in ____ are characterized as anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and vulnerable.

A. neuroticism
B. extraversion
C. openness to experience
D. conscientiousness

A. neuroticism
Jordon has taken a job that is extremely dangerous, but that pays him enough so that he is sure he will have enough to eat and he will be able to sleep in a warm place each night. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Jordon is probably primarily motivated by

A. physiological needs.
B. the need for self-actualization.
C. safety and security needs.
D. cognitive needs.

A. physiological needs.
The idea that a person’s unconscious needs will determine how he or she perceives relatively unstructured stimuli is the basis for

A. the MMPI.
B. personal trait checklist.
C. personality trait tests.
D. the TAT.

D. the TAT.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of narcissism?

A. An easily threatened self-concept
B. Impulsivity
C. Craving for approval from others
D. A strong need to forge bonds with others

D. A strong need to forge bonds with others
Luke believes it is impossible for him to do well in his calculus class, so he seldom spends time studying for that course. His lack of preparation for the exams has resulted in poor grades, and his low grades have strengthened his belief that he lacks the ability to succeed in the class. This interaction between Luke’s beliefs, his behavior, and his environment illustrates the concept that Albert Bandura referred to as

A. unconditioned reinforcement.
B. reciprocal determinism.
C. reaction formation.
D. overcompensation.

B. reciprocal determinism.
Identification of oneself with the proper gender, male or female, would occur during the

A. anal stage.
B. phallic stage.
C. oral stage.
D. genital stage.

B. phallic stage.
According to psychoanalytic theory, a person who is conservative, strict, and moralistic is strongly influenced by her

A. id.
B. preconscious.
C. superego.
D. ego.

C. superego.
Vanessa bites her nails so badly that they bleed, but she can’t seem to stop herself from doing this. According to Freud, Vanessa’s nail biting may be evidence of fixation at the

A. latency stage of development.
B. oral stage of development.
C. anal stage of development.
D. phallic stage of development.

B. oral stage of development.
Social-cognitive theory differs from Skinner’s approach in giving more weight to

A. respondent conditioning.
B. cognitive processes.
C. genetic factors.
D. secondary reinforcers.

B. cognitive processes.
Julio is extremely dependable and productive, and his friends think he is great at organizing events. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Julio would probably score

A. high in openness.
B. low in neuroticism.
C. high in agreeableness.
D. high in conscientiousness.

D. high in conscientiousness.
Sigmund Freud would have been LEAST likely to make which of the following statements?

A. A great deal of our behavior and thoughts are symbolic of hidden motives.
B. Most behavior is rooted in the unconscious.
C. Behavior is the outcome of an interaction among several components of personality.
D. Most of our behavior is rationally directed.

D. Most of our behavior is rationally directed.
Recent research suggests that the size of brain structures that regulate planning and voluntary control are associated with people’s levels of

A. conscientiousness.
B. depression.
C. optimism.
D. agreeableness.

A. conscientiousness.
According to Maslow’s theory, the self-actualizing person would be LEAST likely to

A. have a limited number of strong friendships.
B. be spontaneous.
C. have somewhat mystical experiences.
D. be uncomfortable when alone or detached.

D. be uncomfortable when alone or detached.
Defense mechanisms combat feelings of anxiety and guilt

A. through self-deception.
B. through rational problem-solving.
C. by enhancing self-insight.
D. by making unconscious urges conscious.

A. through self-deception.
Mark has been unsuccessful in using compensation to help him master life’s challenges; according to Adler’s theory, Mark may exhibit

A. a superiority complex.
B. an archetype.
C. an inferiority complex.
D. an Oedipal complex.

C. an inferiority complex.
Assume that personality researchers have isolated a new trait they call “prajna.” If these researchers report that fraternal twins reared together are more similar in this trait than identical twins reared apart, it would indicate that

A. genetics has a larger influence than environment in the expression of prajna.
B. environment has a larger influence than genetics in the expression of prajna.
C. neither genetics nor environment influences the expression of prajna.
D. genetics and environment exert equivalent influences in the expression of prajna.

B. environment has a larger influence than genetics in the expression of prajna.
The tendency to mold our interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out is called

A. projection.
B. reaction formation.
C. self-enhancement.
D. the hindsight bias.

D. the hindsight bias.
According to Rogers, experiences that threaten a person’s self-concept often result in the person experiencing

A. depression.
B. a reevaluation of their self-concept.
C. self-actualization.
D. anxiety.

D. anxiety.
Which level of awareness contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved?

A. Preconscious
B. Conscious
C. Subconscious
D. Unconscious

A. Preconscious
Focusing on positive feedback from others and seeing oneself as above average are characteristic of

A. collectivism.
B. oral sadism.
C. an interdependent construal of self.
D. self-enhancement.

D. self-enhancement.
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality focuses on all of the following EXCEPT

A. methods used to cope with sexual and aggressive urges.
B. unconscious motives and conflicts.
C. the influence of childhood experiences.
D. the potential for personal growth.

D. the potential for personal growth.
If she is using the defense mechanisms of reaction formation, a mother who actually hates her son would MOST likely be both unaware of her hatred and

A. believe that her son hated her.
B. direct her hatred toward her daughter.
C. act in an extremely critical way toward her son.
D. act in an extremely loving way toward her son.

D. act in an extremely loving way toward her son.

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