Psych Chapter 10: Fluid intelligence refers, term mental age

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
achievement test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned.
intelligence
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
cohort
a group of people from a given time period.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca ø- 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
creativity
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
intelligence test
a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
Down syndrome
a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person’s total score.
normal curve
(normal distribution) a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean, or average (about 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes.
general intelligence (g)
a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
predictive validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also called criterionrelated validity.)
intellectual disability
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound. (Formerly referred to as mental retardation.)
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.
content validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
crystallized intelligence
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
fluid intelligence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
heritability
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
Stanford-Binet
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s original intelligence test.
stereotype threat
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. (See also content validity and predictive validity.)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
When a person’s test performance can be compared with that of a representative and pretested sample of people, the test is said to be
Standardized
In very stressful or embarrassing situations, Sanura is able to maintain her poise and help others to feel comfortable. Sanura’s ability best illustrates the value of
emotional intelligence
The WAIS was designed for testing ________ intelligence, whereas the WISC was designed for testing ________ intelligence.
adults, children
Males’ reading ability scores vary ________ than females’ scores and males’ math test performance scores vary ________ than females’ scores.
more, more
On which of the following tasks are women most likely to perform as well or better than men?
reciting poetry
On which of the following tasks are men most likely to outperform women?
. mentally rotating three-dimensional objects
Students who have spent time living abroad and experiencing other cultures are more adept at
creative problem solving.
Injury to certain areas of the ________ lobes can destroy imagination while leaving reading, writing, and arithmetic skills intact.
Frontal Lobes
The impact of early environmental influences on intelligence is most apparent among young children who experience
minimal interaction with caregivers.
The test that provides separate verbal comprehension, perceptual organizati
on, working memory, and processing speed scores, as well as an overall intelligence score, is the

NOT Stanford-Binet.?
a. WAIS.
b. Stanford-Binet. Incorrect
c. SAT Reasoning Test.
d. Emotional Intelligence Test.

Intelligence tests are most likely to be considered culturally biased in terms of their
content validity.
Assessing the stability of repeated intelligence test results gathered over the adult years of a single cohort would most clearly involve
?
Hereditary Genius is the title of a book authored by
Francis Galton
The speed with which people retrieve information from memory has been found to be a predictor of their ________ intelligence.
verbal
Older adults outperformed younger adults in their responses to New York Times crossword puzzles. The superior performance of these older adults best illustrates the value of
crystallized intelligence.
Binet used the term mental age to refer to
the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of intelligence test performance.
On which of the following tasks are 55-year-old adults most likely to perform just as effectively as they could 30 years earlier?
writing a story
The Flynn effect best illustrates that the process of intelligence testing requires up-to-date
standardization samples.
“Gifted child” programs can lead to ________ by implicitly labeling some students as “ungifted” and isolating them from an enriched educational environment.
self-fulfilling prophecies
Psychologists generally agree that intelligence test scores are ________ in terms of being sensitive to differences caused by cultural experiences and are ________ in terms of their predictive validity for different groups.
biased, not biased
One scholar has speculated that a genetic phenomenon comparable to “hybrid vigor” in plants and animals might have contributed to
The Flynn Effect
The speed with which people retrieve information from memory has been found to be a predictor of their ________ intelligence.
Verbal
Anders Ericsson reports a 10-year rule for expert performance that highlights the importance of
The impact of early environmental influences on intelligence is most apparent among young children who experience
minimal interaction with caregivers.
Students verbal scores on the SAT correlate ________ with their subsequent verbal scores on the GRE. Students math scores on the SAT correlate ________ with their subsequent math scores on the GRE.
very strongly; very strongly
Aptitude tests are specifically designed to
Kristina, a high school English teacher, is eager to promote creativity in her writing-class students. Which of the following reminders is likely to do the most to accomplish her goal?
c. “You can produce interesting insights through your writing.”
There are many genes, each of which accounts for much less than 1 percent of intelligence variations. This suggests that intelligence is
polygenic trait
Research indicates that Head Start programs
Crystallized intelligence refers most directly to a person’s
accumulated knowledge and verbal skills.
Of the following, who best illustrates Sternberg’s concept of analytical intelligence?
Research on the determinants of intelligence indicates that
both genes and environment have some influence on intelligence scores
Intelligence tests were initially designed by Binet and Simon to assess
academic aptitude.
The intelligence scores of adopted children are LEAST likely to be positively correlated with the scores of their adoptive siblings during
adulthood
After learning about his low score on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Gunter complained, “I don’t believe that test is a measure of intelligence at all.” Gunter’s statement is equivalent to saying that the WAIS lacks
Validity
A college administrator is trying to assess whether an admissions test accurately predicts how well applicants will perform at his school. The administrator is most obviously concerned that the test is
Valid
If both depressed and nondepressed individuals receive similar scores on a diagnostic test for depression, it suggests that the test
is not valid
The widespread improvement in intelligence test performance during the past century is called
The Flynn effect
Dr. Benthem reports that the scores of 100 male and 100 female students on his new test of mechanical reasoning form a normal curve. From his statement we may conclude that
relatively few students’ scores deviated extremely from the groups’ average score.
When a person’s test performance can be compared with that of a representative and pretested sample of people, the test is said to be
standardized
The correlation is likely to be lowest between the
GRE scores and grades of graduate students.
Emotional intelligence is a critical component of
social intelligence.
A longitudinal study is one in which
the same group of people are tested and retested over a period of years.
Which of the following most directly suggested that intelligence declines throughout adulthood?
cross-sectional studies
Who is most likely to be criticized for extending the definition of intelligence to an overly broad range of talents?
Howard Gardner
Although not notably heavier or larger in total size than the typical Canadian’s brain, Einstein’s brain was 15 percent larger in the lower region of the
parietal lobe.
The distribution of body weights in the general adult human population forms a
The idea that adult intelligence declines with age has been challenged most effectively by
longitudinal research.
The original IQ formula would be LEAST appropriate for representing the intelligence test performance of
university students

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