Psych Chapter 1 Review

Dr. Charles Henry Thompson
(1896-1980): was the first African American to receive a doctorate in educational psychology

Dr. Albert Sidney Beckham
(1897-1964): Received his Ph.D. in psychology; Senior assistant psychologist at the National Committee for Mental Hygiene; Counseled many black youths; Had many publications of his research in the areas of intelligence and social concerns

To change a behavior from an undesirable on to a desirable one
What is the focus of control?

Description; Explanation; Prediction; Control
What are the four primary goals of psychology?

Description
A Psychologist might wonder why so many computer scientists seem to be male. She makes further observations and notes that many “non-techies” stereotypically perceive the life and environment of a computer and surrounds himself with computer games, junk food, and science-fiction gadgets- characteristics that add up to a very masculine ambiance. Which of the primary goals is being described here?

Objective Introspection
The process of objectively examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities

Objective Introspection
Wundt might place an object, such as rock, into a student’s hand and have the student tell him everything that he was feeling as a result of having the rock in his hand; all the sensations stimulated by the rock. This is an example of what?

Structuralism
Early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind

Functionalism
Founded by William James

Natural Selection
Physical traits that help an animal adapt to its environment and survive are passed on to its offspring

Structuralism
Titchener might have asked his students to introspect about things that are blue rather than actually giving them a blue object and asking for reactions to it. This is an example of what?

William James
Who focused on how the mind allows people to function in the real world and was heavily influenced by Natural Selection?

Gestalt psychology
The focus on studying whole patterns rather then small pieces of them; Wertheimer devoted his efforts to studying sensation and perception

Cognitive Psychology
Field focusing not only on perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving

Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Psychoanalysis
The theory and therapy based on Freud’s ideas; has been the basis of much modern

Unconscious
(unaware) mind into which we push

Repress
All of our threatening urges and desires

Psychotherapy
A process in which a trained psychological professional helps a person gain insight into and change his or her behavior

Reflex
An involuntary reaction; Could be caused to occur in response to a formerly unrelated stimulus

John B. Watson; wanted to bring focus back on scientific inquiry and believed only way to do so was to focus on observable behavior and ignore “consciousness” issue; early work examined phobias
What psychologist came up with the idea of Behaviorism? What was his view/goal about behaviorism?

Behaviorism
Associated with work of John B. Watson, who was greatly influenced by Ivan Pavlov’s work in conditioning/learning; “science of behavior” that focuses on observable behavior only

Observable Behavior
Something that could be directly seen and measured

Phobia
An irrational fear; Is really a symptom of an underlying, repressed conflict and cannot be “cured without years of psychoanalysis to uncover and understand the repressed material

Wilhelm Wundt
Who was the father of psychology?

Studied nonphysical structure if the human mind
What did Wilhelm Wundt study?

Dr. Robert Prentiss Daniel
(1902-1968): Earned his Ph.D. in educational psychology; Became president of Shaw University; Then later became President of Virginia State College

Dr. Inez Beverly Prosser
(1897-1934): Earned her Ph.D. in educational psychology; Was the first African American woman to earn this degree; Teaching career ended tragically because she died in a car accident only one year after receiving her doctorate

Dr. Howard Hale Long
(1888-1948): Received his Ed. D. in educational psychology; Teached psychology and did research in educational psychology; Became dean of administration

Dr. Ruth Howard
(1900-1997): Known as the first African American woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology

Max Wertheimer
Founder of Gestalt Psychology; “The whole is greater than the sum”; Believed that psychological events such as perceiving and sensing could not be broken down into any smaller elements and still be properly understood

Margaret Washburn

Mary Whiton Calkins
Denied a Ph.D. degree by Harvard because she was a woman; Became the first female president of the American Psychological Association

Gestalt
An organized whole

Gestalt Psychologists
People who naturally seek out patterns (“wholes”) in available sensory information

Control
To change a behavior from an undesirable one

Explanation
Trying to understand or find an explanation

Description
Observing a behavior and noting everything about it

Prediction
Determining what will happen in the future

Gustav Fechnar

Herman Von Helmholtz

Psychoanalysis
An insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts; Freud’s term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it

Sigmund Freud
Known as the father of psychology; Insight therapy treating fear and anxiety; Emphasis on unconscious and early childhood; Made the unconscious popular(wrote about this too); The unconscious motivates an individual’s behavior

Gestalt Therapy
Form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing

Francis Cecil Sumner
First African American to receive a Ph.D. in psychology; Known as the father of African American psychology

Rosalie Rayner
Took a baby known as “Little Albert”; Taught him to fear a white rat by making him a loud, scary noisy every time the infant saw the rat

Margaret Cover Jones
Decided to repeat Watson and Rayner’s study, but added training that would “cancel out” the phobic reaction of the baby to the white rat; Duplicated the “Little Albert”

Ivan Pavlov; example of conditioning
Was a Russian Physiologist who showed that a reflex could be caused to occur in response to a formerly unrelated stimulus; Worked with dogs; Observed that the salivation reflex could be caused to occur in response to a totally new stimulus; He used the sound of a ticking metronome; He would turn on the metronome, give the dogs food, and they would salivate; After several repetitions, the dogs would salivate to the sound of the metronome before the food was presented; This is an example of what?

Control
Dr. Watson designs a special behavior program for children who are bullies learn how to be less aggressive and more successful in social relationships. Dr. Watson is most interested in

Explanation
Experimental psychologists, who design experiments to determine the causes of behavior, would be most interested in the goal of

William James
Name which of the following early psychologist would have been the most likely to agree to the statement, “The study of the mind should focus how it functions in everyday life?”

Mary Whiton Calkins
Who was the first woman to complete the coursework for a doctorate at Harvard University?

Behaviorism
Which early perspective tried to return to a focus on scientific inquiry by ignoring the study of consciousness?

internal, covert processes
In the definition of psychology, mental processes means

Explanation
Dr. Baker designs an experiment for studying lab rats’ reaction to energy drinks in relation to problem solving. Dr. Baker is most interested in the goal of

Prediction
Results of the study by Cheryan et al. (2009) suggest that changes must occur to the perception of the computer science field. This illustrates the goal of

Nativism (nature)
The idea that our thoughts, ideas, and characteristics are inborn (in our genes); Socrates and Plato; Believed that we can learn about ourselves by examining our thoughts and feelings

Wilhelm Wundt (Germany)
Founder of Modern Psychology

Stimuli and Response
Rewards and Punishment; Interested in behavior and its precise measurement rather than “consciousness” of Wundt and James

Humanistic Psychology
Meslow and Rogers emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our needs for love and acceptance

Empiricism (Nurture)
Knowledge is gained through our experiences in the world (our senses); Aristotle; Human behavior is subject to laws (motivated to seek pleasure, but not pain)

Psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes

Behavioral Psychology
Outward or overt actions and reactions

Psychologist
attempted to apply scientific principles to the study of the human mind

Melody
Made up of individual notes that can only be understood if the notes are in the correct relationship

J.B. Watson
Who challenged the functionalism viewpoint?

Cognitive Perspective
Behavior results in mental processes involved in decision making and problem solving; Focused on your behavior, and how you think about certain situations

Evolutionary Perspective
Behavior results from natural selection of advantageous traits (We’re adaptive to feelings that help us)

Humanistic Perspective
Behavior results from free will and the innate need for self-actualization (People have the freedom to choose their own destiny)

Neuroscience/Biological Perspective
Behavioral results from genes, the brain, and other biological processes

Psychodynamic Perspective
Behavior results from unconscious memories, conflicts, and desires

Unconscious Mind
When people aren’t really sure what’s there, but it effects our minds

Sociocultural Perspective
Behavior results from the social environment and cultural pressures

Egopsychology
Influenced by unconscious motives

Behavioral Perspective
B.F. Skinner
1) Operant Conditioning
2) Reinforcement

Cognitive Perspective
Memory, Intelligence, Perception, Problem Solving, Learning, Cognitive Neuroscience and Physical workings of the brain

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