Psych 351: Final Exam

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evolutionary psychology
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the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection. Influenced by Charles Darwin, it emphasizes the role played by natural selection and adaptation in the evolution of behavior and mental processes. Examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations.
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social exchange theory
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the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs a perspective that views people as motivated to maximize benefits and minimize costs in their relationships with others
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Know the cost & rewards theory relationships
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Social Exchange TheoryLong Term Relationships People are motivated to maximize benefits and minimize costs in their relationships with others. Relationships that provide more rewards and fewer costs will be more satisfying and endure longer. Theory based on a central premise: that the exchange of social and material resources is a fundamental form of human interaction
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passionate love
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Passionate love requires 2 ingredients: A heightened state of physiological arousal; and The belief that this arousal was triggered by the beloved person. Passionate Love: Romantic love characterized by high arousal, intense attraction, volatile and fear of rejection.
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storge love
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(love that evolves out of friendship)
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agape love
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other-oriented, selfless love, altruistic love
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companionate love
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Form of affection found between close friends as well as lovers. Less intense than passionate love. But in some respects it is deeper and more enduring. Characterized by high levels of self-disclosure. Companionate Love: A secure, trusting, stable partnership with less emotional feelings.
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romantic love
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intimacy and passion
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Comparison Level (CL)
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Average expected outcome in relationships
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Comparison Level for Alternatives (CLalt):
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Expectations of what would receive in an alternative situation
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What does \”What is beautiful is good stereotype\” mean?
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Tendency to associate physical attractiveness with other desirable qualities. \”What is beautiful is good\” stereotype. Beauty sometimes means more sociable, extraverted, socially competent, happier, more assertive and more sexual. Strangers vs. Friends??
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Attachment theory
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Bowlby’s theory concerning the development and the effects of the emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver; also used to account for the relationships that develop between close friends and lovers throughout the life span.
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different types of attachment
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Adult Attachment: Secure: less lonely, high self esteem, asks f or help, positive, not afraid of death, worthy of love and support Anxious/ambivalent: high break up rate, intense grieving, love hate relationships w/ relationships. self doubt, cuddly, hot and cold, love to work w/ other but feels unappreciated, emotional worried about rejection Avoidant:More casual sex, work alone, workaholics, withdraw when stressed, hostility inside, atheist, death anxiety, failure t o bond with others Suggests that the attachment style we had with our parents is related to the attachment style we exhibit in our romantic relationships.
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Prerequisite for the development of attraction are what?
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Necessary factors in the attraction process: Propinquity or Nearness in physical space creates opportunities to meet Two basic factors which influence attraction Proximity Effect Mere Exposure Effect
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Understand the Social Learning Theory and how it relates to aggression.
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Behavior is learned through the observations of others. Bandura et al.’s (1961) punching doll. Aggression most likely to increase if models are rewarded and not punished for their aggressive behaviors. Aggressive behavior is strongly affected by learning you do wat u see.. violent video games
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empathy
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understanding and entering into another’s feelings
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sympathy
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sharing the feelings of others (especially feelings of sorrow or anguish)
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intimacy
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a feeling of being intimate and belonging together
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Equity Theory
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Most content with a relationship when the ratio between the benefits and contributions is similar for both partners Balance counts!
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excitation transfer
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when generalized arousal from one experience carries over to another; this is one factor that can influence aggression frustration leads to aggression
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psychological reactance
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Reactance is an emotional reaction in direct contradiction to rules or regulations that threaten or eliminate specific behavioral freedoms. Reactance can occur when someone is heavily pressured to accept a certain view or attitude. Reactance can cause the person to adopt or strengthen a view or attitude that is contrary to what was intended, and also increases resistance to persuasion. People using reverse psychology are playing on at least an informal awareness of reactance, attempting to influence someone to choose the opposite of what they request.
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General Adaptation Syndrome
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Seylye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages–alarm, resistance, exhaustion, (Selye) a general arousal response of the body to a stressor characterized by certain physiologic events and dominated by the sympathetic nervous system
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5 Steps to Helping in an Emergency
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The bystander effect is the finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help 1.Notice that something is wrong 2.interpret event as an emergency 3.take responsibility for providing help 4.decide how to help 5. provide help
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pluralistic ignorance
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A false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding (e.g. not asking questions in class because assuming that everyone else understands)
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Diffusion of responsibility
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…, reduction in sense of responsibility often felt by individuals in a group; may be responsible for the bystander effect
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Good moods vs. bad moods – how are they correlated to helping?
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People who are in a good mood are more likely to help. Why? Good Mood Effect Good moods can increase helping for three reasons: Good moods make us interpret events in a sympathetic way Helping another prolongs the good mood Good moods increase self-attention, and this in turn leads us to be more likely to behave according to our values and beliefs When negative moods make us more likely to help others: If we take responsibility for what caused our bad mood (i.e., feel guilty). If we focus on other people. If we are made to think about our personal values that promote helping. The proposition that ppl help others in order to counteract their own feelings of sadness. Empathy increases feelings of sadness, which increases the need for mood enhancement = helping behavior
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Ways in which men vs. women help
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Men are more likely to help in chivalrous, heroic ways. Women are more likely to be helpful in long term relationships that involve greater commitment.
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what does culture of honor mean
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…, a culture that is defined by its members’ strong concerns about their own and others’ reputations, leading to sensitivity to slights and insults and a willingness to use violence to avenge any perceived wrong or insult
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empathy-altruism hypothesis
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The idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
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bystander effect
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the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
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Rural vs urban areas in regards to helping
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Urban Overload Hypothesis (Milgram, 1970) The theory that people living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it. A review of dozens of studies found that when an opportunity for helping arises, it matters more whether the incident occurs in a rural or urban area than where the individuals grew up.
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Aggression from Freud & Lorenz’s views
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Freud: Aggression stems from a self destructive impulse and that humans must act out the impulse in order to release negative energy and return to a state of calm – death drive. . Lorenz: Aggression is an innate, instinctual motivation, and viewed from an evolutionary perspective – similar to Freud: Frued:Aggression stems from a self destructive impulse and that humans must act out the impulse in order to release negative energy and return to a state of calm – death drive. . Lorenz: Aggression is an innate, instinctual motivation, and viewed from an evolutionary perspective – similar to animals. Scientists do not agree on whether aggression is innate or learned. The debate has been raging for centuries.
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Corporal punishment is positively correlated with what types of behavior from children?
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Corporal punishment has not been found to be an effective means of achieving positive long-term developmental outcomes, such as moral internalization or social problem-solving. Corporal punishment threatens the physical well being of the child. Physical harm is a repeated risk, particularly for young children, and the more often it is used the more likely it is to progress to severe forms of violence. Corporal punishment has been found to be consistently related to poor mental health; including depression, unhappiness, anxiety, and feelings of hopelessness in children and youth. Corporal punishment is a risk factor for relationship problems, including impairment of parent-child relationships, increased levels of aggression and anti-social behaviour in children, raised thresholds for defining an act as violent, and perpetration of violence as an adult, including abuse of one’s family members.

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