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psych 3 exam

question

Psychologists use the term ____________ when they are referring to the unique and relatively enduring set of behaviors, feelings, thoughts, and motives that characterize an individual.
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personality
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Which of the following is true about personality? A. The idea of one’s personality refers to the average behavior expected of people.
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Personality is about individual differences.
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Which of the following best applies to the definition personality?
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It is relatively consistent.
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According to the concept of personality, the ____________ of a person is the disposition to behave consistently in a particular way.
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trait
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____________ is the point at which one moves from not having a particular response to having one.
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A behavioral threshold
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The quantitative trait loci approach looks for the location of specific bits of DNA on particular genes that might be associated with particular traits. These specific bits of DNA are also known as ___________ of behavior.
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genetic markers
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Sigmund and Anna Freud described psychological ____________ as strategies that the mind develops to protect itself from anxiety-provoking desires, thoughts, and memories.
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defense mechanisms
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Alfred Adler disagreed with Freudian theory, suggesting that ____________ is the major motivator of all behavior.
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striving for superiority
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Carl Jung proposed that the ____________ consisted of the shared experiences of our ancestors—God, mother, life, death, water, earth, aggression, survival—that have been transmitted from generation to generation.
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collective unconscious
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The humanistic movement was rekindled in the 1990s and relabeled ___________.
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positive psychology
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According to Carl Rogers, ____________ is the ability to respect and appreciate another person irrespective of their behavior.
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unconditional positive regard
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Which of the following trait theory psychologists used the idea that language would be a good place to start looking for the number of personality traits that existed?
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Gordon Allport
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The main idea behind Hans Eysenck’s model of personality is that:
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differences in individuals’ genome create a different level of arousal and sensitivity to stimulation.
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In which of the following methods of personality assessment are participants provided an ambiguous stimulus or situation and asked to interpret it or tell a story about what they see?
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Projective tests
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The existence of two or more disorders at the same time is called _____.
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comorbidity
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Identify the major psychological disorder that occurs when psychological symptoms take a physical form even though no physical causes can be found.
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Somatic symptom disorder
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_____ disorder is a major psychological disorder that involves a sudden loss of memory or change of identity.
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Dissociative
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_____ disorders include depressive disorders and bipolar disorders.
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Mood
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Which of the following major psychological disorders is characterized by distorted thoughts and perceptions, odd communication, inappropriate emotion, and other unusual behaviors?
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Schizophrenia
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Which of the following are disorders of thought and perception, characterized by an inability to distinguish between real and imagined perceptions?
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Cyclothymic disorders
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Andy is a schizophrenic who has bizarre perceptual experiences such as hallucinations and delusional thinking. These symptoms are known as _____ symptoms of schizophrenia.
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positive
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_____ are convincing sensory experiences that occur in the absence of an external stimulus.
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Hallucinations
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Which of the following is a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
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catatonia
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Jerry is suffering from schizophrenia. His friends and family find it difficult to derive meaning from his speech although he follows grammatical rules while forming sentences. His speech comprises of random words and names which have no relation to the context of the situation. He coins new words that are not commonly accepted. Which of the following best describes his speech?
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Word salad
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According to the diathesis-stress model:
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biological predispositions plus stress or abusive environments together produce psychological disorders.
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_____ is a neurotransmitter majorly involved in the development of schizophrenia.
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Dopamine
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Which of the following is recommended if one wants to alleviate the symptoms of depression?
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Medications that make more serotonin available in the brain to stimulate neural growth
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_____ disorder is a mood disorder characterized by substantial mood fluctuations, cycling between very low and very high moods.
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Bipolar
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If Robert suffers from bipolar disorder, which of the following neurochemical conditions will be observed in his case?
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Low serotonin levels coupled with low levels of norepinephrine in the depressed phase
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_____ is characterized by an overwhelming sense of impending doom, heart palpitations, trembling, sweating, shortness of breath, dizziness, intense dread, nausea, and even a fear of dying.
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A panic attack
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What has research on the causes of anxiety revealed?
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People prone to anxiety are deficient in receptors for GABA.
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Which of the following is an example of the biological form of treatment to help alleviate the symptoms of and sometimes cure psychological disorders?
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Surgical treatments
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Which of the following side effects of traditional antipsychotics consists of repetitive, involuntary movements of jaw, tongue, face and mouth, and body tremors?
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Tardive dyskinesia
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The _____ were among the first pharmaceuticals used to treat depression.
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monoamine oxidase inhibitors
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Atypical antipsychotics like clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone are used to treat _____.
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schizophrenia
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Which of the following drugs interact with many foods and common over-the-counter drugs to produce side effects such as a life threatening increase in blood pressure?
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Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
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In the context of drug therapies, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors work by:
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inhibiting the reuptake process of serotonin and allowing more serotonin to bind with the postsynaptic neuron.
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Which of the following is performed in a radical procedure known as prefrontal lobotomy?
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Connections between the prefrontal cortex and the lower portion of the brain are severed.
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Under which of the following circumstances is electroconvulsive therapy used?
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To treat depression when other treatments have failed
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In ___________________, physicians expose particular brain structures to bursts of high-intensity magnetic fields instead of electricity to treat depression.
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repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
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___________________ is the use of psychological techniques to modify maladaptive behaviors or thought patterns, or both, and to help patients develop insight into their own behavior.
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Psychotherapy
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The most prominent figure in humanistic therapy is Carl Rogers who developed ___________________
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free association
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In client-centered therapy, the therapist must show genuine acceptance and empathy for the client, regardless of what he or she has said or done. This is called _____.
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unconditional positive regard
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Which of the following is true about behavior therapies?
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Behavior therapies focus on changing behavior, rather than thoughts, feelings, or motives.