PSYCH 111 final Essay

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According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of rewards represents __________ morality.
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preconventional
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According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the
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adolescent
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According to the medical model, psychological disorders are
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sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured
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Adolescence is typically a time of
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diminishing parental influence and growing peer influence
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An impaired theory of mind is most closely related to
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autism
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Antipsychotic drugs have proved MOST helpful in the treatment of
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schizophrenia
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At about 8 months old children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress. This best illustrates
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stranger anxiety
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Carl Rogers is known for the development of
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client-centered therapy
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Eleanor finds that there is a correlation of +.35 between income and age. What does this mean?
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as age goes up, so does income
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Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates
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social facilitation
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For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce
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a drive
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Helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim of
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psychoanalysis (freud)
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In treating alcohol dependency, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as
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aversive conditioning
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In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?
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token economy
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Led by John Watson and B.F. Skinner this approach to psychology focuses on what is directly observable.
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behaviorist
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Modern psychology is defined as “the science of behavior and ____________”.
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mental processes
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Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the universe and that he will soon become “King of the Universe.” Mr. Hunt is most clearly suffering from
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delusions
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Olivia is 6 months old and understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking on objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget’s _______ stage.
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sensorimotor
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One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is
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an expressionless face
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Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to
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cultural ideals of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness.
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Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be
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authoritative
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Patrick wants to know if the type of music you listen to while studying affects your memory for the material. He assigns 10 people to listen to rap, 10 to classical, and 10 to rock while they each study the same list of words. He then tests their memory for the list of words. In this study what is the independent variable?
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the type of music listened to
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Psychological disorders in which people lose contact with reality and experience irrational ideas and distorted perceptions are known as _______ disorders.
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psychotic
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Psychologists are LEAST likely to suggest that ________ contribute(s) to the development of schizophrenia.
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neglectful child-rearing practices
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Research on teen social relationships indicates that most adolescents
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like their parents
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Schizophrenia is most likely to be characterized by
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disorganized and fragmented thinking
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Simon LeVay discovered that a neural cluster located in the ________ was larger in heterosexual men than in homosexual men.
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hypothalamus
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Systematic desensitization involves
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associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.
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The U.S. National Institute of Mental Health estimates that ____% of adult Americans suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder each year.
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26
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The field of psychology developed from the fields of _________ and ___________.
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philosophy biology
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The frustration-aggression principle suggests that anger results when
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an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked
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The health risks associated with obesity are generally the greatest for those who carry their excess weight around their _________.
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bellies
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The set point is
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the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.
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The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another’s behavior is called
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the fundamental attribution error
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The time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm is called
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the refractory period
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This type of psychologist also usually has a medical degree.
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psychiatrist
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This type of research design allows scientists to establish cause and effect relationships.
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experiment
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To assess attachment differences among infants, Mary Ainsworth placed them in a laboratory setting called a
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strange situation
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University students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates
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social loafing
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Vigorous activity in the thalamus of schizophrenic patients has been found to be associated with
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hearing voices
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Which of the following best describes adolescent self-esteem?
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it falls through the early teen years and rises during the late teen years
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Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers?
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responsive parenting
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Which psychologist was most influential in shaping our understanding of cognitive development?
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piaget
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Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because of their negative interpretations of events?
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cognitive therapy
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A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait of
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conscientiousness
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A test in which people are asked to describe or tell a story about a series of ambiguous stimuli is called a(n)
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projective test
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Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for
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self-actualization
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Activity in the ________ decreases hunger.
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ventromedial hypothalamus
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Antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
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a lack of guilt feelings
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Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as
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unconditional positive regard
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Compulsive hand washing often increases in frequency because it relieves feelings of anxiety. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on compulsive behaviors.
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reinforcement
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Deindividuation refers to:
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c. a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
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internal locus of control:
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individuals believe that they can control events that affect them
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the big 5 of personality
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openness conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness neuroticism
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Emotional instability is most closely related to the Big Five trait of
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neuroticism
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Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a(n)
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dissociative disorder
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Normative social influence results from peoples’ desire to
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gain social approval
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Studies of IMPLICIT attitudes indicate that prejudice is often
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unconscious
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The heart begins beating during the _________ period of prenatal development.
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embryonic
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The id operates on the _____________ principle.
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id
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The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our
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situations
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Those with an avoidant personality disorder are most likely to display
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a fear of social rejection
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When asked what is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the importance of satisfying their ________ needs.
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belongingness
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Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the role of the collective unconscious in personality development?
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Jung
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Xanax and Ativan are _____________ drugs.
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antianxiety

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