Psych 111 Chapter 1

Recently, Western psychologists have started to devote more attention to ____ as a determinant of behavior.
culture
Recent research suggests that ____________ predict college grades almost as well as admissions tests.
study skills and habits
The key to the effective use of highlighting is to
highlight only the main ideas, key supporting details, and technical terms.
Dr. Smythe believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as taste, it is necessary to understand the purpose that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. Dr. Smythe’s views are MOST consistent with
the functionalist approach to psychology.
Which of the following qualifies as empirically-based knowledge?
Observed actions
The school of psychology that focused on identifying and examining the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images, was
structuralism.
Which of the following groups is MOST likely to have been used as subjects for psychological research?
Middle- and upper-class white males
Isabel is listening to a piece of classical music and tape recording all her feelings and impressions as she experiences them. Isabel is using a technique similar to the research methodology of
structuralism.
Lisa taught her son to buckle his seatbelt in the car by allowing him to play one of his CDs on the car stereo after he was buckled up. Lisa taught him by applying the principles of
behaviorism
In the 1950s, Skinner argued that psychology should return to a strict interpretation of the principles of
behaviorism
In a discussion with your professor, she tells you that she believes that the focus of psychological study should be to break the conscious experience into its basic elements. Which of the following historical schools of thought is your professor’s idea MOST consistent with?
Structuralism
Marie is a graduate student whose major area of interest is personality psychology. You should expect that Marie is MOST interested in
the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
Based on an evolutionary analysis of spatial skills, you should predict that Jill will be better than Jack at
remembering locations.
Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to be made by a humanist?
The behavior of humans tends to be dictated by environmental circumstances.
Research findings suggest that attentive note-taking is associated with
improved learning and performance in class.
The approach that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations is
evolutionary psychology.
The concept of “stream of consciousness” is associated with
William James.
Wilhelm Wundt believed the focus of psychology should be
examining people’s awareness of their immediate experience.
In the 1920s, there were many fundamental disputes between competing schools of thought in psychology. These disputes illustrate which of the textbook’s unifying themes?
Psychology is theoretically diverse.
If you were having problems with severe depression, the type of psychologist that would be the greatest help to you would be
a clinical psychologist.
The idea that you should reward yourself for achieving study goals is based on the concept of
behavior modification.
You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, “Psychology has historically devoted too much attention to pathology, weakness, and suffering.” This faculty member’s views are MOST similar to the views held by
Martin Seligman.
According to John Watson, behavior is governed primarily by
the environment.
A newspaper article reported a study by a psychologist in which the attitudes of men and women toward traditional sex roles were studied. MOST likely, the researcher was
a social psychologist.
Colleges and universities are the primary work setting for approximately ____ of American psychologists.
30%
The text’s unifying theme that “heredity and environment jointly influence behavior” is often referred to as describing the
nature versus nurture issue.
In an attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. This technique is called
introspection.
The area of applied psychology MOST stimulated by World War II was
clinical psychology.
Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be MOST likely to ask?
Why do we like some people and not others?
Which of the following areas is MOST likely to be classified as an applied area of specialization in psychology?
Counseling psychology
Based on Harold Kelley’s research, if you are led to believe that you are going to hear a lecture given by a warm and friendly instructor, you
will probably perceive the instructor as being warm and friendly.
Darnell is working on a computer system that will have full language recognition capabilities. The type of psychologist that could probably give Darnell the MOST help in developing this computer system would be
a cognitive psychologist.
A multifactorial approach to explaining your performance in a course would MOST likely focus on
both personal and situational factors.
When faced with a major assignment such as a term paper it is a good idea to
break the assignment down into smaller components.
Which of the following is the BEST advice for developing sound study habits?
Plan your study schedule in advance.
A psychologist who is interested in the psychological effect of aging would MOST likely specialize in
developmental psychology.
It should be easiest to teach a child to pick up his toys by utilizing the principles and techniques developed by
B. F. Skinner.
Which field of psychology studies attitude change and group behavior?
Social psychology
The notion that the subject matter of psychology should be the scientific study of conscious experience is MOST closely linked with
Wilhelm Wundt.
Which of the following areas of research in psychology is concerned with understanding the role of the endocrine system in the regulation of behavior?
Physiological psychology
Strict behaviorists would be MOST sympathetic to which one of the following statements?
Human behavior is primarily caused by environmental factors.
Functionalism was founded by
William James.
Imagine that the editor of your local newspaper writes a column supporting a reduction in government intervention with a transfer of more rights to individual citizens. The editor bases this argument on the assumption that people are rational beings who will fulfill their maximum potential as long as others do not infringe on their basic human needs. This editor’s views reflect those seen in
the humanistic perspective.
Lynelle is crying because her brother just punched her in the arm. Lynelle’s mother asks her what she did just before she was punched. In looking for a link between her daughter’s actions and her son’s response to those actions, Lynelle’s mother is using the type of analysis that would be typical in
the behaviorist approach to the study of psychology.
Carly was in favor of a proposed convention center; Colin was against the project. When Carly surveyed people, she found that 70% of those she questioned were in favor of the project. Colin’s survey found that 75% of those he surveyed were against building the convention center. These differing survey results show that
motives and expectations can color our experiences.
Imagine two scientists from another planet visit Earth and attempt to study our computers. In his studies Poz focuses on how the computer is used for conducting business, accessing research, communicating with others, and playing games, while Zog concentrates on the construction of the hard drive, monitor, keyboard, and mouse. Poz’s approach is most similar to ____ while Zog’s is most similar to ____.
functionalism; structuralism
Quan Lee recently lost her job at American Industries Inc. because she would often show up for important meetings 20 to 30 minutes after they had started. She was confused about why this upset her boss because her relatives are almost always late for appointments and meetings. Quan Lee’s confusion illustrates the fact that
our cultural backgrounds exert a considerable influence over our behavior.
Psychology’s intellectual parents are the disciplines of
philosophy and physiology.
The fact that Princeton students “saw” Dartmouth students engage in twice as many infractions as the Dartmouth students did in a Princeton-Dartmouth football game is MOST consistent with
subjectivity of perception.
Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called
psychoanalysis.
Humanists believe that people’s behavior is governed by
their self-concepts.
The spatial tasks on which males tend to do better than females generally involve
mentally rotating objects.
The most widely practiced professional specialty in psychology is
clinical psychology.
While functionalism emphasizes the adaptive purpose of ____, evolutionary psychology emphasizes the adaptive purpose of ____.
consciousness; behavior
The notion that all behavior is fully governed by external stimuli is MOST consistent with
behaviorism.
Michael is having problems relating to other people because he is exhibiting delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations. Michael would MOST likely seek help from
a clinical psychologist.
Not including clinical or counseling psychologists, the two most common specialties in applied psychology are
school psychology and industrial/organizational psychology.
Darwin’s theory of natural selection had a significant influence on the development of
functionalism.
Alison believes that individuals learn to be either aggressive or nonaggressive as a result of the experiences they have. Alison’s views are MOST consistent with the
behaviorist view of psychology.
The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is MOST consistent with the views of
Sigmund Freud.
The person responsible for establishing psychology as an independent discipline with its own subject matter is
Wilhelm Wundt.
The individual MOST closely associated with the recent development of positive psychology is
Martin Seligman.
Which of the following is NOT good advice for developing sound study habits?
Try to tackle simple, routine tasks first, saving larger tasks for later.
Which of the following organizations was established in 1988 to serve exclusively as an advocate for the science of psychology?
American Psychological Society
Critical thinking includes all of the following EXCEPT
originally believing that the stated position on a topic is incorrect.
Critical thinking is
using principles of likelihood when dealing with probabilistic events.
generating multiple solutions to problems.
working systematically toward a desired goal.
The major organization that represents BOTH the scientific and professional branches of psychology in the United States is the
American Psychological Association.
Jane’s thyroid gland has become inactive and, as a result, she is becoming lethargic and has gained weight. We know that the thyroid gland can cause this reaction because of studies conducted by
physiological psychologists.
Which of the following areas of research in psychology is concerned with assessing individual differences, developing tests, and developing new statistical techniques?
Psychometrics
Skinner would suggest that if you study “extra hard” for your first psychology midterm and earn an “A,” for your next psychology midterm, you would
continue to study “extra hard.”
Sunlin prepared a meal for his new girlfriend, and she enjoyed it so much that she cleaned her plate. Later, she was surprised that he had found her behavior somewhat insulting; she thought she was showing her appreciation. In this case, the couple’s miscommunication illustrates the underlying theme that
our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage.
The term that refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge is
cognition.
Which of the following groups of psychologists would be MOST likely to focus on individual uniqueness, freedom, and potential for growth as a person?
Humanists
The ____ believed that consciousness developed in humans because it serves a useful purpose.
functionalists
According to the definition of psychology that appears in your textbook, psychology is both
a science and a profession.
Which of the following is NOT one of the major contributions of G. Stanley Hall?
He received the first Ph.D. in psychology in America.
What are the major contributions of stanley hall
He established the first American psychological journal.
He established the first research laboratory for psychology in America.
He was the first president of the American Psychological Association.
In the 19th century, Wilhelm Wundt attempted to shape the new discipline of psychology along the lines of physics, because in his era, physics was admired as a “model” science. Wundt’s attempt to imitate physics illustrates which of the textbook’s unifying themes?
Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
The text’s suggestions for improving academic performance by improving your reading, getting more out of lectures, and improving test-taking strategies are consistent with the application of
critical thinking skills.
Both Rogers and Maslow believed
people have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth.
Dr Hawkins is a psychologist who spends her day working in an elementary school testing and counseling children who are having difficulty in school. What type of applied psychologist is Dr. Hawkins?
A school psychologist
The text’s two unifying themes that “our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage” and “heredity and environment jointly influence behavior” can BEST be viewed as both describing more specialized statements of which other theme?
Behavior is determined by multiple causes
Manny tends to be very passive and allows people to take advantage of him. What would a humanist MOST likely say about Manny?
Manny can become more assertive once he begins to feel better about himself and recognizes that he has the ability to fulfill his potential.
Which of the following is NOT included in the text’s definition of psychology?
Psychology studies primarily the unconscious mind
How does the text define psychology
Psychology is a science
Psychology studies behavior including physiological and cognitive processes
Psychology is a profession that solves practical problems
Which of the following theorists would tend to emphasize explanations in terms of freedom and potential for personal growth?
Carl Rogers
Maslow
The school of psychology that was MOST responsible for the rise of animal research in psychology was
behaviorism.
A psychologist who works on trying to increase job satisfaction and productivity in a large company would MOST likely have received training in
industrial and organizational psychology.
Research findings indicate that when changing answers on a multiple-choice test, most people change
a wrong answer to a right answer.
The basic premise of evolutionary psychology is that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms’ success in
passing on their genes to the next generation.
You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, “Many times, people are unaware of the unconscious motivations that drive their overt actions.” This faculty member’s views are MOST similar to the views held by
Sigmund Freud.
The psychologist who took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes was
B. F. Skinner.
Historically, most of psychology’s research has been conducted in
the United States.
If Dr. Maple is a behaviorist, he would MOST likely believe that the cause of a child’s disruptive behavior in school is the result of
his prior experiences.
Which of the following is a recent movement in psychology that has revived the old interest in mental and conscious events?
Cognitive psychology
A psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s that reflects a renewed interest in the study of the mind or consciousness that existed in psychology when it first became a science in the late 1800s is the
cognitive perspective.
An area of specialization in applied psychology that is primarily involved in the treatment of less severe problems of everyday life (such as marriage counseling) is
counseling psychology.
The idea that psychology is empirical suggests that
conclusions should be based on direct observation.
Francine asks you for advice concerning the use of highlighting when studying for exams. Based on the research into the use of highlighting, the BEST advice that you could her would be to
try to find the one or two sentences that best capture the purpose of each paragraph.
Dr. Lopez is a psychologist who evaluates, diagnoses, and treats people with everyday problems of moderate severity. What type of psychologist is Dr. Lopez?
A counseling psychologist
Which of the following is NOT likely to be considered a critical thinking skill?
Accepting the views of an appropriate authority figure
What is considered a critical thinking skill
Working systematically toward a desired goal
Distinguishing among facts, opinions, and reasoned judgments
Understanding how reasons and evidence support or refute conclusions
A clinical psychologist would probably be MOST interested in
figuring out the most effective ways of treating anxiety.
The cognitive perspective contends that to fully understand human behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on
internal mental events.
In everyday life, people usually think of a behavior as having ____, whereas psychology views behavior as having ____.
a single cause; multiple causes
Which of the following statements BEST reflects the main advantage of conducting psychological research with animals?
A researcher can exert more control over an animal than over a human subject.
Professor Vasquez believes that nearly all psychological disorders can ultimately be traced to abnormalities in brain chemistry. Professor Vasquez’s beliefs are MOST consistent with the
biological perspective.
The first president of the American Psychological Association (APA) was
G. Stanley Hall.
According to Wilhelm Wundt, the focus of psychology was on the scientific study of
conscious experience.
Which of the following is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental disorders?
A psychiatrist
Researchers in psychology have “to see it to believe it.” This orientation is MOST consistent with
empiricism.
The fact that behaviors can be observed and thoughts and feelings cannot is the basis of
behaviorism.
The proportion of academic and research psychologists who identify their primary area of interest as health psychology is
approximately 10%.
One psychologist explains a phobia in terms of learning principles whereas another looks to the unconscious for an explanation. Given this scenario, which of the following conclusions is MOST accurate?
The two psychologists are using different theoretical perspectives.
Marissa wants to study people’s emotional reactions to increases in temperature. Her classmate, Bernard, tells her that she should focus on observable behaviors, rather than internal states in her study. Bernard’s views are MOST similar to those found in
the behavioral perspective.
In conducting a research study, psychologists need to define all their variables clearly and unambiguously, so that other researchers can objectively evaluate the results of the research. This aspect of psychology illustrates the underlying theme that
psychology is empirical.
Roger and Lydia met for a blind date. Roger had been told by his best friend that Lydia was charismatic and vivacious. During their date Lydia was friendly, but she was also quite shy and didn’t initiate much of the conversation. Still, Roger thinks that Lydia is one of the most exciting people that he has met, and he can’t wait to see her again. Roger’s reaction to his date with Lydia shows that
people’s experience of the world is highly subjective.
Which of the following would be considered the major principle of operant conditioning?
Humans and other animals tend to repeat responses followed by positive outcomes.
Which of the following areas of specialization in psychology is involved with the development of curricula and the training of teachers?
Educational psychology
Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behavior with a reward of a dog biscuit and praise. Janet used the principles of
behaviorism.
Research findings indicate that when changing answers on a multiple-choice test, most people change
a wrong answer to a right answer.
According to John Watson, behavior is governed primarily by
the environment.
Which of the following is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental disorders?
A psychiatrist
Lisa taught her son to buckle his seatbelt in the car by allowing him to play one of his CDs on the car stereo after he was buckled up. Lisa taught him by applying the principles of
behaviorism
Dr. Escher believes that individuals may inherit a predisposition for some psychological disorders, but that the disorders will not actually develop unless there is some stressful event that acts as a trigger. Dr. Escher’s views reflect the underlying theme that
genetic factors and experience interact to shape behavior.
The person responsible for establishing psychology as an independent discipline with its own subject matter is
Wilhelm Wundt.
Darnell is working on a computer system that will have full language recognition capabilities. The type of psychologist that could probably give Darnell the MOST help in developing this computer system would be
a cognitive psychologist.
Wilhelm Wundt believed the focus of psychology should be
examining people’s awareness of their immediate experience.
Which of the following early psychologists would be MOST likely to endorse the tenets of evolutionary psychology?
William James
The idea that you should reward yourself for achieving study goals is based on the concept of
behavior modification.
Which of the following contributed MOST to the development of applied psychology?
The high demand for mental testing of military recruits
The fact that behaviors can be observed and thoughts and feelings cannot is the basis of
behaviorism
Watson defined psychology as
the scientific study of behavior.
Which of the following BEST characterizes people’s understanding of reality?
Highly subjective
Which of the following would be LEAST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist?
Shaping behavior by reinforcement
What would be studied by a cognitive psychologist
How people reason to solve problems
How we remember things
The development of language
In conducting a research study, psychologists need to define all their variables clearly and unambiguously, so that other researchers can objectively evaluate the results of the research. This aspect of psychology illustrates the underlying theme that
psychology is empirical.
As the result of a breakdown in communication, morale is low among employees in a local factory. A(n) ____ would be the MOST likely to be helpful in restoring communication and improving morale.
industrial/organizational psychologist
Alison believes that individuals learn to be either aggressive or nonaggressive as a result of the experiences they have. Alison’s views are MOST consistent with the
behaviorist view of psychology.
Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as an effective study technique?
Concentrate your study time immediately before an exam.
What is an effective study technique
Set up a schedule for studying.
Study in a place where distractions are minimal.
Break major assignments down into smaller component tasks.
The first woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association was
Mary Calkins.
According to research findings, which of the following is MOST likely to be associated with poor grades?
Being absent from class
The idea that psychology is empirical suggests that
conclusions should be based on direct observation.
The major event that influenced the development of psychology as a profession was
World War II.
During World War II, many academic psychologists were pressed into service, mainly as
clinicians.
Dr. Scarply believes that if all violent programming was banned, aggressive behavior would almost completely disappear. This type of explanation for the prevalence of aggressive behavior is inconsistent with the view that
behavior is determined by multiple causes.
Which of the following conclusions is supported by research comparing “successful” to “unsuccessful” students?
Successful students attended class more often than unsuccessful students.
Over the last 50 years, membership in the American Psychological Association has
increased dramatically.
Dr. Somers studies psychological topics such as attitude formation and change and how groups influence people’s behavior. Which of the following BEST categorizes Dr. Somers’ research specialization?
Social psychology
Ramon is a graduate student whose major area of interest is cognitive psychology. You should expect that Ramon is MOST interested in
understanding mental processes such as memory and learning.
With which of the following statements would a behaviorist agree?
Psychology should be the science of behavior that can be observed by others.
Larry is a graduate student whose major area of interest is social psychology. You should expect that Larry is MOST interested in
how people relate to each other and influence each other.
With which of the following individuals is B. F. Skinner MOST in agreement on the issue of internal mental events?
John Watson
Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be MOST likely to ask?
Why do we like some people and not others?
The cognitive perspective contends that to fully understand human behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on
internal mental events.
Widely shared customs, beliefs, values, and norms refer to which of the following?
Culture
Which of the following psychologists would be MOST likely to stress that each person has a drive to grow and fulfill his or her potential?
Abraham Maslow
Although functionalism faded away as a theoretical force in psychology, historians credit it with two important contributions to the discipline:
behaviorism and applied psychology.
The widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations BEST describes a person’s
cultural heritage.
Recent research trends in psychology involve two areas largely ignored by early behaviorists. These two areas are
cognition (thinking) and physiological processes.
A group of psychologists are conducting research to determine whether people eat more when they are in the presence of environmental stimuli that increase anxiety, such as loud noises or flashing lights. These scientists MOST likely follow
the behavioral perspective.
One psychologist explains a phobia in terms of learning principles whereas another looks to the unconscious for an explanation. Given this scenario, which of the following conclusions is MOST accurate?
The two psychologists are using different theoretical perspectives.
A multifactorial approach to explaining your performance in a course would MOST likely focus on
both personal and situational factors.
Sally is a psychologist interested improving curriculum design, achievement testing, and teacher training. What type of psychologist is Sally?
An educational psychologist
Which of the following is a recent movement in psychology that has revived the old interest in mental and conscious events?
Cognitive psychology
Which of the following areas is MOST likely to be classified as an applied area of specialization in psychology?
Counseling psychology
Sally is a psychologist interested improving curriculum design, achievement testing, and teacher training. What type of psychologist is Sally?
An educational psychologist