Psych 101 Unit 3

question

Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha’s skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol? negative reinforcement classical conditioning observational learning operant conditioning
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classical conditioning
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In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n) unconditioned stimulus. secondary reinforcer. neutral stimulus. primary reinforcer.
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neutral stimulus
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Your heart may race when you are confronted by a lion but not when you are approached by a kitten. This best illustrates the adaptive value of observational learning. discrimination. extrinsic motivation. spontaneous recovery
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discrimination
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A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer. delayed negative partial conditioned
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conditioned
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Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n) conditioned stimulus. unconditioned stimulus. positive reinforcer. negative reinforcer.
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negative reinforcer
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A partial schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses is a ________ schedule. fixed-ratio variable-ratio fixed-interval variable-interval
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variable-ratio
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It has been suggested that ________ are activated when a monkey moves a peanut into its own mouth and when a monkey simply observes other monkeys move a peanut into their mouths. prosocial behaviors intrinsic motives cognitive maps mirror neurons
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cognitive maps
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Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning. secondary reinforcers cognitive processes biological predispositions intrinsic motivation
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cognitive processes
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Morphemes are the smallest speech units that carry meaning. the best examples of particular categories of objects. the smallest distinctive sound units of a language. rules for combining words into grammatically correct sentences.
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the smallest speech units that carry meaning
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Many people who are bilingual experience a different sense of self, depending on which language they are using. This most clearly illustrates the implications of Whorf’s linguistic determinism hypothesis. Wernicke’s speech theory. Gardner’s language theory. Chomsky’s language acquisition theory.
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Whorf’s linguistic determinism hypothesis
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The study of influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change is called molecular genetics. epigenetics. behavior genetics. evolutionary psychology.
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epigenetics
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The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as self-regulation. behavior genetics. natural selection. interaction.
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natural selection
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Placing ourselves in environments well suited to our existing traits best illustrates behavior genetics. a pruning process. a selection effect. heritability.
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a selection effect
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People have always responded so positively to Alyssa’s good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates the impact of temperament on gender identity. that mutations and heritability are complementary. the interaction of nature and nurture. the reciprocal influence of genes and chromosomes.
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the interaction of nature and nurture
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An infant boy was raised as a girl following a botched circumcision. During adolescence, the child ________ boys and ________ the assigned female identity. wanted to kiss; accepted wanted to kiss; did not accept wanted no part of kissing; accepted wanted no part of kissing; did not accept
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wanted no part of kissing; did not accept
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The belief that boys are more independent than girls is a gender role. gender identity. gender schema. gender type.
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gender schema
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Just after birth, the cries of newborns bear the intonation of identity. imprinting. habituation. their mother’s native language.
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their mother’s native language
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During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n) zygote and finally develops into an embryo. embryo and finally develops into a fetus. zygote and finally develops into a fetus. fetus and finally develops into an embryo.
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zygote and finally develops into a fetus
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Infant visual preferences have been discovered by assessing infants’ conservation. habituation. accommodation. imprinting.
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habituation
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With repeated presentations of a bright red toy, 2-month-old Anita began to respond with less visual attention to the toy. Her decreasing responsiveness best illustrates egocentrism. infantile amnesia. habituation. object permanence.
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habituation
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During which of Piaget’s stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived? sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operational
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sensorimotor
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At age 12, Sean is happy, self-reliant, and has a positive self-image. It is most likely that Sean’s parents are permissive. conservative. authoritarian. authoritative.
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authoritative
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Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child is like a blank slate at birth. is not heavily influenced by maturation. develops through a series of stages. is heavily dependent on the child’s personality.
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develops through a series of stages
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Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas others fail to respond predictably to their infants’ demands for food. These different maternal feeding practices are most likely to contribute to differences in infant habituation. attachment. conservation. egocentrism.
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attachment
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An ongoing study of 1100 children in 10 American cities has found that those who had spent the most time in day-care facilities had slightly advanced thinking and language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness. slightly inferior thinking and language skills and a decreased rate of aggressiveness. slightly advanced thinking and language skills and a decreased rate of aggressiveness. slightly inferior thinking and language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness.
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slightly advanced thinking and language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness
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Brad and Jane exercise very little control over their two young children, and they usually allow them to do whatever they want. Psychologists would characterize Brad and Jane as ________ parents. authoritarian authoritative conventional permissive
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permissive
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Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of identity by seeking a lifelong romantic relationship. severing the emotional ties between themselves and their childhood friends. investigating the personal suitability of various occupational and social roles. adopting whatever values and expectations their parents recommend.
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investigating the personal suitability of various occupational and social roles
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Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for competence. intimacy. autonomy. trust.
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intimacy
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Which of the following best describes adolescent self-esteem? It rises through the early teen years and falls during the late teen years. It falls through the early teen years and rises during the late teen years. It rises through the early teen years and rises during the late teen years. It falls through the early teen years and falls during the late teen years.
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It falls through the early teen years and rises during the late teen years
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The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as ________ is to an adolescent girl. sexual intercourse puberty menarche secure attachment
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menarche
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Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of passionate love. social facilitation. self-disclosure. the mere exposure effect.
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self-disclosure
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After she received a free hand-painted Christmas ornament from a religious organization, Mrs. Montevecchi felt obligated to mail a cash donation to the organization. Her response to the free gift best illustrates the impact of the mere exposure effect. just-world phenomenon. fundamental attribution error. reciprocity norm.
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reciprocity norm
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Which of the following would be the best advice to give parents who are concerned about the frequent aggressive outbursts of their 6-year-old son? \”Make a point of rewarding and praising your son whenever he is socially cooperative and altruistic.\” \”Be consistent in spanking your child after every outburst so he’ll realize that aggression never pays.\” \”Encourage your son to watch the devastating consequences of violence portrayed on TV.\” \”Don’t be concerned about your child’s aggressiveness, unless the behavior pattern continues beyond the fifth grade.\”
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\”Make a point of rewarding and praising your son whenever he is socially cooperative and altruistic.\”
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Ellie is unusually attractive and intelligent, and she works hard to please her husband. He displays little affection for her, however, and spends most of the family’s resources on his own interests. Ellie’s relationship with her husband is best characterized as deindividuated. companionate. inequitable. implicit.
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inequitable
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The Y chromosome is the most well-known genetic marker identifying those who are most likely to form stereotypes. engage in aggression. experience cognitive dissonance. commit the fundamental attribution error.
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engage in aggression
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The fact that human aggression varies widely from culture to culture most strongly suggests that it is NOT a reaction to frustration. influenced by social norms. an unlearned instinct. a product of deindividuation.
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an unlearned instinct
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According to social exchange theory, altruistic behavior is guided by calculations of costs and benefits. feelings of social responsibility. reciprocity norms. family ties.
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calculations of costs and benefits
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When 68-year-old Mrs. Blake had a flat tire on a fairly isolated highway, she received help from a passerby in less than 10 minutes. One year later, when she had a flat tire on a busy freeway, an hour elapsed before someone finally stopped to offer assistance. Mrs. Blake’s experience best illustrates the fundamental attribution error. the mere exposure effect. group polarization. the bystander effect.
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the bystander effect
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Haley thinks Keith’s silence indicates that he’s angry, so she avoids talking to him. Unfortunately, Keith thinks Haley’s quietness signifies that she’s angry and wants to be left alone. This situation best illustrates mirror-image perceptions. the reciprocity norm. superordinate goals. deindividuation.
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mirror-image perceptions
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According to the text, aggression always involves physical damage. anger and hostility. the intent to hurt. a reaction to frustration.
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the intent to hurt

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