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PSYCH 101- General Psychology Chapter 1

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Define Psychology
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The scientific study of mind and behavior.
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Define Mind
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Private inner experience
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Define Behavior
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Observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals.
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Who was William James? (1842-1910)
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First to take a scientific approach to psychology.
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Define Structuralism
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Analyze the mind by breaking it down to basic components
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Define Functionalism
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Study how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environments
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Define Nativism
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The philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn.
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Define Philosophical Empiricism
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The Philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience.
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Latin: What does Tabula Rosa mean?
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Blank Slate
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Rene’ Descartes (1596-1650)
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French philosopher that argued for dualism between mind and body.
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Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
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Argued against Descartes
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Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)
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Created Phrenology
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Define Phrenology
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A now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics are localized in specific regions of the brain.
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Pierre Flourens (1794-1867)
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Surgically removed brain pieces; argued against Gall’s methods.
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Paul Broca (1824-1880)
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Studied brain damaged patients (left frontal lobe) to link localization to ability.
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Define Physiology
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The study of biological processes, especially in the human body.
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Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
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Studied human reaction time; estimated the length of nerve impulses.
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Define Stimulus
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Sensory input from the environment
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Define Reaction Time
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The amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus
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Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
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Opened the first Psychological laboratory.
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Define Consciousness
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A person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind.
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Define Structuralism
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The analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind.
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Define Introspection
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The subjective observation of one’s own experience
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Edward Titchner (1867-1927)
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Studied under Wundt; focused on identifying basic elements of the mind.
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Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
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inspired James
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Define Natural Selection
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The features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations
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G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
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Set up first psychological laboratory in North America; focused on development and education. Founded the American Journal of Psychology.
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Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), Pierre Janet (1859-1947)
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Studied hysteric patients through hypnosis.
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Define Hysteria
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A temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences.
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Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
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Hysteria caused from painful unconscious experiences.
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Define Unconscious
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The part of the mind that operates outside of awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions.
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Define Psychoanalytic Theory
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Approach to understand human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.
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Define Psychoanalysis
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A therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders.
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Carl Jung (1875-1961), Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
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Followed but broke away from Freud
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Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
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Pioneered a new movement in Humanistic Psychology
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Define Humanistic Psychology
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An approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings.
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Define Behaviorism
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an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior.
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John Watson (1878-1958)
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Goal to predict and control behavior through the study of observable behavior.
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Margaret Washburn (1871-1939)
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Goal to predict and control behavior through the study of observable behavior.
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Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
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Studied the physiology of digestion and founded classical conditioning (Stimulus-Response)
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What else is Stimulus-Response known as?
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S-R
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Define Response
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An action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus.
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Burrhus Frederick (B.F.) Skinner (1904-1990)
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Developed the “Skinner Box” or conditioning chamber to explain learning, and founded to operant conditioning. Influenced by Benedict Spinoza (1632-1677)
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Reinforcement
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The consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again.
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What was the flaw with Behaviorism?
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Behaviorism ignored mental processes and evolutionary history.
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Define Illusions
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Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality.
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Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)
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Founded induced motion phenomena. Created Gestalt Psychology.
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Define Gestalt Psychology
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A psychological approach that emphasizes that we often percive the whole rather than the sum of the parts.
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Sir Fredric Bartlett (1886-1969)
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Discovered that memory recall is flawed in contrast to Hermann Ebbinghaus. (1850-1909)
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Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
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Studied cognitive development (errors) in children.
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Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)
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Studied the construal of stimuli; topology as a mathematical to model subjective experience.
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Define Cognitive Psychology
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The scientific study of metal processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning.
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Donald Broadbent (1926-1993)
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Discovered attention has limited capacity
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How many pieces of info can the brain hold?
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7 pieces (give or take 2)
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Karl Lashley (1890-1958)
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Lesioned rats’ brains to unsuccessfully localize learning; lead to physiological psychology.
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Define Behavioral Neuroscience
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An approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes.
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Define Cognitive Neuroscience
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A field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity.
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Define Evolutionary Psychology
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A psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection. Influenced by Darwin, James, and E.O. Wilson.
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What are humans?
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habit making, pattern creating, social creatures/animals.
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What influences Psychology?
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The presence and absence of other people.
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Define Social Psychology
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A subfield of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior
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Solomon Asch (1907-1996)
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Studied “mental chemistry” and obedience in lab experiments.
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Gorgon Allport (1897-1967)
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Studied stereotyping, prejudice, and racism as perceptual errors.
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Define Cultural Psychology
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The study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members. Studied by psychologists and anthropologists
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Define Absolutionism
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Culture makes little difference on psychology
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Define Relativism
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Psychological phenomena are likely to vary considerable across cultures
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What was created when seven Psychologists banded together in 1892?
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The American Psychological Association (APA)
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Mary Calkins (1863-1930)
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First female APA President
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Kenneth Clark (1914-2005)
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First African-American APA President
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American Psychological Society (APS) began in 1988, what was it changed to?
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Association for Psychological Science (2006)
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What are some different types of Psychology?
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-Clinical -Counseling -School -Industrial/Organizational