Psych 101 Chapter 15

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Psychotherapy
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Treatment involving psychological techniques, consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
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Biomedical Therapy
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Prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person’s physiology
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Eclectic Approach
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An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
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Psychoanalysis
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Sigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences–and the therapist’s interpretations of them–released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
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Resistance
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In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
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Interpretation
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In psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
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Transference
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In psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
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Psychodynamic Therapy
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Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition; views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and seeks to enhance self-insight.
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Insight Therapies
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A variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses
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Client-Centered Therapy
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A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening with a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth (also called person-centered therapy).
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Active Listening
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Empathic Listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Roger’s client-centered therapy
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Unconditional Positive Regard
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A caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients develop self-awareness and self-acceptance
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Behavior Therapy
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Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
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Counterconditioning
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Behavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; include exposure therapies and aversive conditiong
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Exposure Therapies
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Behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid.
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Systematic Desensitization
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A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias
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Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
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An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic stimulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
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Aversive Conditioning
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A type of counter conditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior.
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Token Economy
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An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
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Cognitive Therapy
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Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
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A popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
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Group Therapy
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Therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction
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Family Therapy
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Therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
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Evidence-Based Practice
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Clinical decision making that integrates the best available research and clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
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Psychopharmacology
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The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
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Antipsychotic Drugs
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Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder.
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Antianxiety Drugs
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Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
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Antidepressant Drugs
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Drugs used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD
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ECT
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a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
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Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
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The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
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Psychosurgery
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Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
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Lobotomy
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A psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
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Resilience
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The personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma
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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
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D-cycloserine helps relieve the symptoms of
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Attend to patients’ positive and negative feelings toward their therapists
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Psychoanalysts are most likely to
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Depression
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are frequently prescribed for the treatment of
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Depression
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Psychodynamic therapy has been found to be especially successful in the treatment of
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Briefer
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Psychodynamic therapy is ________ than traditional psychoanalysis.
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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
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Which form of therapy has been found to be especially effective in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.
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Vagus-Nerve Stimulation
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Which of the following is used to treat depression with a chest-implanted electrical device that periodically sends signals that affect the limbic system?
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Thorazine
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Jordan experiences delusions of persecution, and irrelevant sights or sounds consistently distract him from things that require his attention. Which of the following drugs is most likely to relieve these distressing symptoms?
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Cognitive Therapy
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Aaron Beck has used gentle questioning intended to reveal depressed clients’ irrational thinking. His therapeutic approach best illustrates
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Establishing programs to wipeout poverty and other demoralizing situations
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Preventive mental health attempts to reduce the likelihood of psychological disorders by
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Cognitive
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Although originally trained in Freudian techniques, Aaron Beck developed a ________ therapy for depression.
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Interpersonal Relationships
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Psychodynamic therapies try to understand patients’ current symptoms by focusing on recurring patterns in their
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Behavior Therapy
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Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of
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Sigmund Freud
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Who emphasized the importance of transference in the therapeutic process?
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Token Economy
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Proponents of behavior modification have suggested that institutionalized patients can be weaned from ________ by shifting them to other rewards common to life outside an institution.
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Cognitive Therapy
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The goal of encouraging therapy clients to reduce their incapacitating anxiety by saying positive things to themselves during anxiety-producing situations best illustrates a form of
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Often need to convince themselves that they did not waste time on therapy
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Clients’ perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are often misleading because clients
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Stigmatized
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Most self-help and support groups focus on ______ illnesses.
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Client-Centered Therapy
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Which of the following is considered to be the most nondirective form of therapy?
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Joseph Wolpe
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The exposure therapies used today were refined by
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Emphasize the importance of clients’ personal interpretations of life events
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Cognitive therapists are most likely to
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Clients typically emphasize their problems at the start of therapy and their well-being at the end of therapy
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Therapists’ perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are likely to be misleading because
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Counterconditioning
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To reduce his daughter’s fear of the dark, Mr. Chew would hug and gently rock her immediately after turning off the lights at bedtime. Mr. Chew’s strategy best illustrates the technique of
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Whereas clients’ perceptions strongly affirm the effectiveness of psychotherapy, studies point to more modest results
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The effectiveness of psychotherapy has been assessed both through clients’ perspectives and through controlled research studies. What have such assessments found?
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Anxiety Disorders, OCD, and PTSD
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Antidepressant drugs are increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of
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Neurogenesis
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Electroconvulsive therapy appears to promote

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