Psych 100 2B

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Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is
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C. deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
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Ongoing patterns of behavior that are different from those of most other people in your culture are best characterized as
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A. Deviant
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Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is
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B. preventing her from functioning effectively
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Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of
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C. ADHD
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Larry has difficulty organizing his daily schedule of work responsibilities. He often makes careless mistakes or fails to complete his work because he is easily distracted. Larry’s behavior is most characteristic of
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B. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
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ADHD is diagnosed ________ often in girls than in boys. In the decade after 1987, a(n) ________ proportion of American children have been treated for this disorder.
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D. less; increasing
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Although Adderall is a ________ drug, it is commonly used in the treatment of ________.
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B. stimulant; ADHD
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Individuals diagnosed with ________ experience a normal but delayed thinning of the frontal cerebral cortex.
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D. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
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The greatest shortcoming associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations
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C. led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments.
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According to the medical model, psychological disorders are
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A. sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured
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The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of
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B. The medical model
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The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
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A. social circumstances and psychological factors
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It would be most difficult to use the ________ to explain why anorexia nervosa occurs mostly in Western cultures.
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B. medical model
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Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.
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C. schizophrenia
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Both the inseparability of mind and body and the interaction of nature and nurture are most clearly emphasized by
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D. the biopsychosocial approach
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Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor’s emphasis best illustrates
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D. a biopsychosocial approach.
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The DSM-IV-TR does NOT
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B. explain the causes of the various psychological disorders.
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DSM-IV-TR focuses on clinicians’ reports of observable behavior in order to
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A. facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.
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Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five levels of the
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B. DSM-IV-TR.
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DSM-IV-TR is most likely to be criticized for
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B. classifying an excessively broad range of human behaviors as psychologically disordered.
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One facet of the positive psychology movement has been the introduction of a classification system designed to aid in the process of
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A. Assessing human strengths
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A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often
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A. bias our perceptions of the labeled person.
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After George learned that Mrs. Min suffered from schizophrenia, he mistakenly concluded that her tendencies to laugh easily and smile frequently were symptoms of her disorder. This best illustrates the
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A. unreliability of DSM-IV-TR.
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When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of
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C. self-fulfilling prophecies
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The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characteristics of their patients’ complex symptoms is most clearly facilitated by the use of
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B. diagnostic labels.
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A deluded Scotsman, Daniel M’Naughten, tried to assassinate a government official in 1843. He was sent to a mental hospital rather than to a prison because he was judged to
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D. be insane.
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Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of
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B. an anxiety disorder
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Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn’t know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from
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C. generalized anxiety disorder
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A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by
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B. a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal
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Freud suggested that for those suffering a generalized anxiety disorder, the anxiety is
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B. free-floating
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While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from
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B. a panic attack.
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In comparison to generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder is characterized by periods of distress that are
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C. more intense and less prolonged.
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Which of the following disorders is characterized by the most sudden and unpredictable episodes of distress?
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B. panic disorder
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Incapacitating efforts to avoid specific anxiety-producing situations is most indicative of certain
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C. phobias.
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Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from
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D. a phobia.
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An immediate and irrational anxiety response to the mere sight of blood is indicative of
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C. a specific phobia
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An incapacitating and highly distressing fear about being embarrassed in the presence of others is most characteristic of
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B. social phobia.
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Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of
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C. agoraphobia
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Sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and getting lost in a crowd terrifies her, so she has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear, she earns her living as a freelance writer, working at home. Sadie’s behavior is most characteristic of
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A. agoraphobia
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Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenthfloor apartment. To reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing
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D. obsessive-compulsive disorder
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Obsessions are
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D. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.
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Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of
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B. an obsession.
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The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of
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B. obsessive-compulsive disorder
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Repeatedly thinking about your own death is to ________ as repeatedly washing your hands is to ________.
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D. obsession; compulsion
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The social withdrawal and haunting nightmares of battle-scarred war veterans best illustrate symptoms of
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D. PTSD.
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Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of
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B. post-traumatic stress disorder
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Some people are more vulnerable to PTSD because they have a sensitive ________, which floods the body with stress hormones
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C. limbic system
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Some psychologists believe that due partly to a broader definition of trauma, mental health professionals have been overdiagnosing
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B. PTSD
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Most political dissidents who survive dozens of episodes of torture do not later exhibit PTSD. This best illustrates survivor
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D. resiliency.
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Positive psychological changes that result from struggling with extremely challenging life crises demonstrate
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C. post-traumatic growth.

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