Psych 001 Writing Assignments

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Affect is associated with what cognitive process, and how does the book describe that process?
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Affect- experience of feeling or emotion. emotion- mental and physiological state that directs out attention and guides our behavior.
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Describe the nervous system associated with arousal.
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arousal- associated with the sympatheic NS sympathetic NS- associated with flight-or-fight response
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The James-Lange theory, the Cannon-Bard theory and the Schachter-Singer two-factory theory are all ways of explaining how we experience emotions; describe them and what differentiates them from the others.
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cannon bard- emotion is expereinced through physical arousal and the emotion itself james lange- emotional state is result of emotion we experience two factor-physiological arousal causes many emotions and we cognitively label that emotion (emotion= cognitive + physical)
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Gestures, body positioning and facial expression are all aspects of what form of communication? How might smiling affect your mood?
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nonverbal communication- expressing ideas and emotions without using words facial feedback hypothesis- physically express our emotion smiling- experience cognitive emotion as well; could make us happier
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What disease does PTSD stand for? Describe how it comes about and the symptoms associated with it.
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Post traumatic stress disorder- result of extreme traumatic event associated with negative emotions that are mentally replayed again and again. symptoms- anxiety, sleeplessness, social withdrawal, nightmares
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What are the three phases of general adaption syndrome, and what effect is in response to?
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alarm- immediate increase in stress hormones (cortisol) resistance- adapts to ongoing threat and continues to function normally exhaustion- runs out of reserves and immunity, blood glucose decreases, illness may occur
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What does HPA axis refer to, and what does it activate in response to? Name as many hormones as you can associated with this process.
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hypothalamus – pituitary gland – adrenal gland. activates in response to stress (physiological response) pituitary- releases ACTH adrenal- releases epinephrine, nonepinephrine, cortisol
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What are the male and female responses to activation of the HPA axis? Describe them.
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men- flight-or-fight: flee or attack women- tend-and-befriend: create social networks and make alliances
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Name four coping skills essential to maintaining balance in the face of stress.
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optimism- tendency to expect (+) outcomes over (-) self efficacy- ability to control your own life to create positive events percieved control- one is able to effect one’s enviroment (you control it) hardiness- resilient and individual is to stress
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Which is more important to happiness: friends or money? Discuss.
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social support- essential for happiness and well-being even if diagnosed with an illness
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Describe the social-cultural, biological and psychological factors that influence eating behavior.
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socio-cultural: appropraite body weight and culturally prepared foods biological: hyporthalamus starts and stops hormone signals; individual metabolic rate; appetite hormones psychological: perception of food, time since last meal eaten, mood, guilt, self-esteem
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What is the term that describes the energy expended by a body while at rest, and how does it influence weight?
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basal metabolic rate- burning calories while an individual is at rest; impact weight; individual differences vary
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Describe the difference between Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.
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anorexia- low body weight, fear of gaining weight, distorted body image bulimia- binge eating followed by purging
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Why is obesity such a concern for so many people? What causes it?
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obesity- leading cause of death; so much excess body fat that can impair health cause- genetic factors (parents had it, diabetes) enviromental factors (overeating, unhealthy choices, lack of exercise)
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Describe the four stages of the sexual response cycle.
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1. excitement- gentilia fils up with blood 2. plateau- breathing and blood pressure increases in preparation of orgasm 3. orgasm-muscles contract in order to prepare body for reproduction process ex) women’s orgasm helps position the uterus in order to draw sperm in 4. resolution- body relaxes and returns to excitement stage – refractory period: tyically occurs in men in which they can’t experience another orgasm for several minute or hours – women may experience several orgasm
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what are the major sex horones for males and females?
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female- estrogen and progesterone (also have testosterone which is vital in female sex cycle) men- testosterone
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What percentage of the population is gay, lesbian and bisexual? For what span of time has homosexuality been reported in human historical records?
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3-4% men gay 1-2% lesbian 1% bisexual Homosexuality has been reported through the entire recorded history of humanity.
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Social Psychology pertains to the study of what aspect of human nature? Name a term that describes the environment as relates to social psychology.
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social psychology- examines, investigates, predicts how we feel and act in regards to those around us and how people influence all these facts social situation- describes social enviorment of who we interact with
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Social cognition serves what role in the psychology of an individual?
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Social cognition- mechanism of human thought that allows us to predict the actions of both ourselves and of others
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What term describes our perceptions, judgments and evaluations of people or things?
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attitude- enduring understanding of people and things
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What are social norms, and how do they affect behavior? What social norms are you participating in as you respond to these questions?
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Social norms- standards of behavior that are accepted and understood to be appropriate in social contexts. If you are doing this task alone in a room or dorm, then you are likely not engaging in any social norms, as they require the presence of others to meet that definition.
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What standards of attractiveness are found across cultures? What standards are culturally specific?
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health, facial symmetry, average features = standards thinness= not specific
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Define stereotyping. How might stereotyping affect physically attractive people? Unattractive people?
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stereotyping- judge internal personlaity characteristics based on external physical features physically attractive people- recieve better grades, get job interviews, recieve prefernetial treatment in court cases
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What behaviors are caused by prejudice? How can these behaviors create a self-fulfilling prophecy?
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discrimination- negative behaviors towards individuals of an appearance or group based on prejudice prejudice- unfortunate conesquences self fulfilling prephecy- people who suffer from discrmination live up to stereptype standards
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What term is used to describe the positive experience and emotions we experience as part of group membership?
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social identity
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What phenomenon does the term mere exposure describe? How does this relate to close relationships?
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mere exposure- people tend to prefer people or things they come in contact with frequently close relationships-may start with mere exposure effect but defined by interpersonal attractions, culumating length, and intimate relationships
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Why is it important to make causal attributions? How can this process lead to incorrect beliefs? What term describes this effect?
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casual attributions- determine apparent causes of behavior based on our observations of them fundamental attribution error- overlook situational effects on a person’s behavior
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How do self-monitoring and self-perception differ? Which of these factors has more influence on cognitive dissonance?
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self-montioring- ability to change how you behave in regards to social scene self-perception: actions help us determine our thoughts and emotions cognitive dissosance- feeling of discomfort resulting from disagreements in self-perception and cause a change in behavior
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What is altruism, and what are some factors known to increase it? Name and describe as many as you can. How might altruism help the person being altruistic in the future?
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altruism- behavior to help others that usually doesn’t benefit the person who engages in the behavior itself people more likely- positive mood, guilt, emphathetic, guilt, benefits, personal responsibility recirpocal altruism- if we help peopl now they will help us later on
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Why is that entire crowds of people can watch tragic events unfolding, such as someone being injured or killed in an accident, according to social psychology?
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diffusion of responsibility- we think someone else will help
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What is aggression and what constructive purpose can it serve?
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catharsis- prevent extreme acts of aggression by engaging in minor events of aggression ex) exercise, sex
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What are two types of conformity, and what are some factors that lead to greater conformity?
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normative confromity- conform to be like others informational conformity- we believe in others more than ourselves increase in conformity- numbers in majority, authority figure decrease in conformity- by already existing conformity
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Stanley Migram conducted a classic study that demonstrated the power of authority on the behavior. Describe that experiment and what it found.
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participant= teacher confederate= learner everytime learner gets answer right, no shock everytime learner gets answer wrong, SHOCK, each wrong answer increases by certain voltage 65% of participants delievered maxium shock experminetor kept saying: \”experiment requires you to continue\” power of authority figure= behavior modified
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Describe social facilitation, inhibition and loafing. What things determine which of these we are more likely to engage in?
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social facilitation- social pressures enhance performance social inhibition- social pressures decrease performance social loafing- people don’t work as well in a group as they would alone
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What phenomenon does groupthink describe? How can this effect the decisions of juries?
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people of high expertise in a group together, tend to make poor decisions due to social conformity pressures and flawed group process make poor decision not in amount of evidence, but in force to conform
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The psychological theories of phrenology, somatology and physiognomy have what in common? Describe each of them.
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phrenology- bumps on a person’s head could determine personality traits somatology- Ectomorph, Mesomorph and Endomorph physiognomy- facial charcatersitics could determine personal attributes
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Is the person you sit next to in class Energetic, Relaxed or does it depend on the situation? What about yourself? What did researcher Richard Nisbett and his colleagues determine about trait attribution for yourself and others?
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Nisbett and colleagues determined that we’re more likely to attribute a greater number of consistent traits to others than we do to ourselves.
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Based on the Barnum effect, what is one logical explaination of why people find horoscopes, fortune telling and other concepts that prescribe traits to individuals? Describe the Barnum effect.
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barnum effect- tendency for people to believe in that traits that are applied to them astological signs- led to believe that they apply to us
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How do projective personality measures work? In particular, how do the Rorschach test and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) utilize this measure to describe personality?
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projective tests- unstructured and meaningless stimulus and describe what comes to mind rorschah- inkblot test to predict personality TAT- write short stores about ambiguous sketches
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Describe the id, the ego and the superego, and how they relate to psychodynamic psychology. Under which of these divisions does the pleasure principle reside?
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id- unconscious motive; driven by pleasure prinicple- needs satisfaction ego- balance id and superego; self and decision maker superego- moralitiy and social consciousness
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Put Freud’s stages of psychosexual development in order, list the age at which they occur, and describe each: Phallic, Genital, Latency, Oral and Anal.
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Oral- Birth to 18 months: Pleasure comes from putting things in the mouth. Anal- 18 months to 3 years: Pleasure comes from defecation and urination. Phallic- 3 years to 6 years: Pleasure comes from the genitals, and sexual attraction to the parent of the opposite sex creates conflict. Latency- 6 years to puberty: Sexual feelings become less central to personality for a time. Genital- puberty and older: mature sexual orientation, if development has been normal until this point.
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Carl Jung is an important neo-Freudian theorist; describe his belief in the collective unconsciousness, how it relates to the personal unconsciousness and what role archetypes play in this theory.
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collective unconsciousness- storehouse of shared cultural, ancestral memories archetypes- multicultural symbols that are universal to all of us
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What is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? Arrange the following in order from bottom to top: Love/belonging, Esteem, Physiological, Self-actualization and safety.
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hierarchy of needs- motivate us to move through our everyday lives start: most basic survival finish: most self esteem esteem/ self actualization love / belonging safety physiological
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Define self-actualization and the benefits associated with it.
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self actualization- internal need to live up to the fullness of our personal potential peak experiences- achieve self actualization; experience clarity and transcendence by feeling of connectedness with others
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What percentage of your genes, approximately, are exactly the same as those of the person who sits next to you in class? How do your genetics relate to instinct?
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as species humans have 99% identical genes instincts- inborn, strongly influence genes especially in reproduction and survival
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Define behavioral genetics and describe three important studies that are commonly done by those interested in this field: family, twin and adoption studies. What do these studies tell us about the relationship between genetics and behavior.
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behavioral genetics- how genes affect our behavior and compare nonbiological and biological traits family studies- look at trait and trace it through the family tree; genes may or may not affect it twin studies- identical and fraternal; determine the degree to which they possess the same trace adoption studies-examines siblings and twins that have been raise in different households
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What is a knock-out study and how does it relate to molecular genetics?
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knock out study to remove a key gene and determine if the behavior is altered molecualr genetics- understand behavior based off of a genetic code
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How does self-efficacy differ from group efficacy? Why might perceptions of group efficacy impede action regarding climate change?
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self efficacy- individuals ability to create change within their immediate enviroment group efficacy- group has control
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What is the key aim of this paper? Which section of a typical paper- Introduction, Methods, Results or Discussion- would it be appropriate to state the purpose of the article?
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aim- by making a fuss and worrying about the enviroment and raising fears about the environment may actually hamper attempts to save it introduction
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According to the dual pathway model of coping with collective disadvantage, what are the two causal pathways that lead to collective action?
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1. emotional experience of the group 2. the thought of the groups ability to solve the problem 1 and 2 lead to communal action
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What is the difference between emotion-focused approach to problems and the problem-focused approach in the dual pathway model? How is avoidance-coping different?
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emotion-focused: maintaining emotional regulation (composure) in a fearful situation problem-focused: group action can change reality in a positive direction avoidance: denying the problem thus avoiding emotional stress
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Are beliefs about self-efficacy or group efficacy more associated with taking action to protect the environment?
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correlation in group efficacy associated with enviromental behavior group efficacy- group’s capability to perform
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What is abnormal psychology, and how often will you encounter someone who is affected by the phenomenon this branch of psychology studies? In what situation would you expect to encounter more individuals affected by this phenomenon?
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abnormal psychology- mental disorders and disabilities prevalence- disability enthicities and low socioeconomic status
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Define the term ‘psychological disorder’. List an example of one.
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psychological disorder- dysfunctional pattern of thought, deviant from norms of society, distress from emotional, cognitive, behavioral deregulation schizophrenia- split from reality
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How does the bio-psycho-social model of illness attempt to understand psychological disorders? Describe how each factor study contributes to the illness, and how that influences the development of treatments.
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bio – genetic makeup – brain structure – neurotrasnimitters psych – response to stress – patterns of negavtive thinking socio-cultural -cultural expectatons – homelessness -abuse -nomality/ disorder -stigma prejudice
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An 18 year old friend comes to you and says he’s hearing the voice of his grandmother, who presently lives in Oklahoma, speaking to him through the television. The voice makes him uneasy, and asks you, as a person who’s taken Introduction to Psychology, what you think’s going on. What would you, as a student, diagnose him with? What would a trained professional likely diagnose him with, barring additional information such as a head trauma, drug use or fabrication?
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schizophrenia- hearing things, at that age axis 1- clinical disorders (mood, anxiety) axis 2- personality and mental retardation axis 3- general medical condition axis 4- global assesment of the person
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Beyond the symptoms associated with mental disability, other difficulties present themselves to an individual diagnosed with these illnesses: describe comorbidity and stigma, what causes them and how they affect diagnosed individuals.
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comorbidity- suffer from several disorer due to social situation stigma- disgrace/ defect association that person with devalued social group; invisibility of cause of cause of disease
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What is autism, and what differentiates Asperger’s disorder from it?
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autism- impaired social interaction and communication and by restricted and reptitve behavior, before age 7 sysmptoms start aspergers- developmental disorder affects child ability to socialize and communicate effective w others before age 7 almost identical to autism with the exception of delay in language developmet (limits individual’s social and communication abilities)
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Define Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). How prominent is its diagnosis in our society, and how has the frequency of that diagnosis changed in the past 20 years?
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ADHD- lack of attention and focus and high energy 1/20 children have it overdiagnosed- drug companies partially to blame 7% college students have it treated with stimulants 70% more likely in men
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What separates anxiety from an anxiety disorder? Define generalized anxiety and panic disorders.
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anxiety disorder- irrational fears by non-threatening objects ex) sunlight GAD- anxiety over long term relationships ex) family, money, life expectance panic disorder- sudden intense powerful feelings of doom – individuals ususally have to change lifestyles to avoid another panic attack
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What is a phobia? Describe two examples. Describe how social phobia is different.
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phobia- irrational fear ex) spider and heights social phobia- shyness or discomfort around people or social situations ex) being in a public place, highways
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Randy is about to leave the house, but first he checks the coffee maker to make sure it’s off. He gets out to the sidewalk, and turns back around, goes back inside and makes sure the coffee maker is off. He then goes out and gets on a bus, but finds himself worrying about whether or not the coffee maker is off. What mental disorder does this sound like?
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OCD- distressing thought and repeated actions goal- alleviate anxiety – they know what they are doing is stupid but they need to do it
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Define and describe the symptoms experienced by someone diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
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PTSD- suffer from an extremely traumatic event, anxiety is given off from surronding enviromental cues cues- may have expereinced them during trauma symptoms- combordity (individual expreiences one or more disorders at same time), anger, substance abuse, and depression
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How is major depressive disorder (clinical depression) different from bipolar disorder?
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major depressive disorder-chronic LOW mood and self-esteem and loss of interest in positive activities bipolar disorder- mood swings from extreme high to extreme lows; can be destructive for interpersonal and personal lives
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From the bio-psycho-social perspective of psychology, which category offers the most robust evidence as being the underlying cause of schizophrenia? Briefly describe schizophrenia.
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biological – genetics (family and twin studies) – cerebral ventricles ENLARGED – loss of neurons in temporal lobes schizophrenia- delusions, hallucinations, loss of contact with reality, inappropriate affect, disorganized speech, social withdrawal detroration of adaptive behavior
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How common is borderline personality disorder (BPD) in the general population? How is it distinguished by gender? Describe BPD, focusing on how these individuals deal with stress.
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BPD- prolonged disturbance of personlaity accompanied mood swing, unstable personal relationships, identity problems, threats of self-destructive behavior, fears of abandonment and impulsivity 2% entire population 75% women coping- cutting , overeating, burning
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What is the goal of psychodynamic therapy, how does it seek to provide relief for psychological disorders? How do patients resist this psychotherapy, and what is one of its limitations?
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psychodynamic therapy- determine underlying unconscious motives of disorder relief- probing dreams, childhood expereinces, free association free association- client just talks and therapist attempts to determine unconscious motives dream analysis- looks for symbols in dreams insight- determines underlying unconscious motives resistance- don’t want help from the therapist; defense mechanism to avoid pain form unconscious transfer effects- transfer feelings onto therapist limitations- long-term and costly
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What is the primary contribution of Carl Rogers’ Humanistic Therapies to the therapeutic process?
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humanistic therapy- self realization and fulfillment; promote growth in the world around them theraputeic alliance- bond between therapist and client in which the therapist offers unconditional respect, trust, empathy and open communication
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What does the term CBT stand for and what are the two major approaches utilized in this form of psychotherapy? How do these approaches complement each other?
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CBT- cogntive behavioral therapy cognitive- change the negative thought patterns; think more ACCURATELY about the situations and escape irrational thought patterns – creates therpay that is greater than the sum of its parts (underlying thoughts of illness) behavioral- learning theories to reduce self-destructive behavior ex) exposure therapy, desentitization
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What is the difference between flooding and systematic desensitization? What therapy are they associated with?
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flooding- exposure to the fear all at once; patients may relapse; habituate with situation and receieve emotional support from therapist – exposure therapy –> behavioral systematic desensitization- start with the least frightening then increase to the most frightening – exposure therapy –> behavioral
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Why are drug therapies effective, and what are their limitations?
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drug therpay- drugs to balance chemicals in the brain to obtain homeostasis effective- allievate anxiety for short-term; counteract major symptoms limitations- suicidal warnings, difficult to find correct dosage / drug combination; side effects
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What is electroconvulsive therapy? What psychological disorder does it treat, and when is it used? What are its limitations?
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ECT- electrical current sent through brain to deliever brief seizure usage: severe cases of depression limits: temporary relief, patients relapse, risk for memory loss
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How is transcranial magnetic stimulation different from ECT? How can it assist in depressed patients?
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TMS- magnetic coil that pulses electrical signals to the pre-frontal coretx (typically less activated in depressed patients) benefits- no sedation and no memory loss
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How does group therapy help to alleviate psychological disorder symptoms?
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social situation- new enviromental setting for patients – by changing it can actually help people group therapy- creates safe, empathetic environment – allows indivudals to problem solve – share tips and ideas – form positive social bonds both in and out of therpay
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What are the three levels of service community mental health services provide? How do they seek to treat mental disorders?
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community mental health services- PREVENTION over treatment; maintain and present state to avoid getting worse 1. primary- general care for public 2. secondary- care for people who have risk factors risk factors- lower socioeconmic status and enviromental vulnerabilities 3. tetiary- focus on people who are already diagnosed
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How do we determine the effectiveness of a treatment? What barriers to effectively determine the efficacy of a treatment must be overcome?
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effectiveness-compare treatment vs control group and determine statsicla difference p=.05 (less than 5% chance that these results are due to chance) meta-analysis: allows for greater statistical validity that compares multiple studies control extraneous variables- be aware of placebo effects and the act of recieveing and not recieving treatment
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What is the overall question this study seeks to answer, the research hypothesis? What are the specific questions this study intends to test?
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determined whether stress coping methods would increase/ maintain health in HIV patients
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What is the independent variable (IV) and what are its levels? Which is the control group?
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IV= treatment recieved: CBT, tai chi training, spritual growth, wait-list control (control group)
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Why did researchers choose to examine these particular treatment techniques?
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CBT- lessen percieved stress levels tai- stress reduction and increased immune function spiritual- not alot of evidence but similar results to tai
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What is the dependent variable (DV) and how is it measured? What do these measures tell us about the individuals in the study, and how will these measures determine the results of the study?
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DV= hiv related psych stress, effectiveness of coping strategies, life quality, cortisol levels lymphocyte proliferation and hiv- specific health stautus = meausure of health
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How were extraneous variables, those things not included in the IV that can cause changes to the DV, controlled for in this study?
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randomly assigned controlled extraneous- individual helath and stress levels gender separated and controlled – sub divided based on pre-treatment heath status – had HIV for a long time – on stable medications
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What did this study find as relates to the psychological distress of the treatment groups as compared to the control group?
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CBT, Tai chi, spritual growth NOT SIGNFICANTLY different from control
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Did the treatment groups have more effective coping strategies compared to controls?
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CBT and Tai chi were suppose to show better coping strategies but they didn’t
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Did treatment groups have a better quality of life than the control group?
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no statistical difference in regards to quality of life
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How did treatment groups compare to control groups in physiological measures of stress?
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no difference
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How did treatment groups compare to the control group in physiological measures of immune function?
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all improved. control group decreased in immunological function
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Did the treatment groups differ from the control group in HIV-specific health status?
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similar health status at end
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Given that not all hypothesizes were supported, can this study be considered a success? Why or why not?
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adds knowledge about the treatment of HIV in regards to treatment and limitations
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In general, what does this study conclude?
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stress managemnt and immune system support for HIV holistic therapies

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