PSYC303 Learning & Cognition

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Generally, if we can see an object’s geons, we are able to identify the object. This is known as the
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principles of componential recovery
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The recognition-by-components approach proposes that there are a number of basic features such as
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rectangular solids and cubes
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Some perceptions result from assumptions we make about the environment that we are not even aware of. This theory of unconscious inference was developed by
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Helmholtz
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A heuristic is a
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\”rule of thumb\” that provides a best-guess solution to a problem
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The study of the behavior of humans with brain damage is called
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neuropsychology
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When Sam listens to his girlfriend Susan in the restaurant and ignores other people’s conversations, he is engaged in the process of _______ attention
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selective
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Broadbent’s \”filter model\” proposes that the filter identifies the attended message based on
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physical characteristics
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Which of the following would likely be an input message into the detector in Broadbent’s model?
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A message with a German accent
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Colby and coworkers’ study showed that a monkey’s parietal cortex responded best to the appearance of a light when it was the focus of the monkey’s
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attention
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According to Treisman’s feature integration theory, the first stage of perception is called the _____ stage.
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preattentive
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According to your text, students often overlook functions of memory they take for granted such as
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labeling familiar objects
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Information remains in sensory memory for seconds or a fraction of a second
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seconds or a fraction of a second
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Compared to the whole-report technique, the partial-report procedure involves
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a smaller response set
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Brief sensory memory for sound is known as
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echoic memory
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STM’s capacity is best estimated as seven (plus or minus two)
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meaningful units
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Loss of memory for things that have happened in the past is known as
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retrograde amnesia
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The dramatic case of patient H.M. clearly illustrates that _____is crucial for the formation of LTMs
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the hippocampus
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Which of the following is NOT an example of an implicit memory?
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Semantic memory
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Work with brain-injured patients reveals that _____memory does not depend on conscious memory.
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implicit and procedural
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According to your text, which of the following movies is LEAST accurate in its portrayal of a memory problem?
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50 First Dates
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Donders’ main reason for doing his choice reaction time experiment was to study
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decision making
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A common feature of both a reaction time experiment and an operant conditioning experiment is
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the measurement of behavior
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Who developed the concept of the cognitive map?
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Tolman
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Who proposed that children’s language development was caused by imitation and reinforcement?
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B. F. Skinner
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The field that studies how to make machines behave in ways that are intelligent if a human were so behaving is known as
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artificial intelligence
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The neuron doctrine is
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in disagreement with nerve net theory
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Action potentials occur in the
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axon
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Which part of the brain is important for touch?
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Parietal lobe
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The layer of neurons that lines the back of the eye is called the
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retina
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Most cognitive psychologists_________the notion of a grandmother cell.
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reject
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Which of the following is not a geon?
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Circle
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The process by which small objects become perceptually grouped to form larger objects is
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perceptual organization
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Palmer’s experiment, in which he asked people to identify objects in a kitchen, showed how ______ can affect perception.
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context
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The landmark discrimination problem is more difficult to do if you have damage to your______ lobe.
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parietal
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The perception pathway corresponds to the _________pathway, while the action pathway corresponds to the _______pathway.
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what; where
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Selection of the attended message in the Broadbent model occurs based on the
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physical characteristics of the message
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A high threshold in Treisman’s model of attention implies that
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a strong signal to cause activation
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The ability to pay attention to, or carry out, two or more different tasks simultaneously is known as
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divided attention
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The Stroop effect demonstrates
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how automatic processing can interfere with intended processing
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Controlled processing involves
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close attention
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The use of an eye tracker can help reveal the shifting of one’s _______ attention.
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overt
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When we reach a scene, initial fixations are most likely to occur on _____areas.
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high-saliency
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A property of control processes in the modal model of memory is that they
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may differ from one task to another
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Which of the following represents the most effective chunking of the digit sequence 14929111776?
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1492 911 1776
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If you remember something in terms of its meaning, the type of encoding you are using is
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semantic
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One function of ________ is controlling the suppression of irrelevant information.
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the central executive
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Types of declarative memory are _____ and ______ memory.
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episodic; semantic
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The multiple choice question is an example of a ______test.
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recognition
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Acquiring information and transforming it into memory is
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encoding
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The principle that we learn information together with its context is known as
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encoding specificity
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Autobiographical memory research shows that a person’s brain is more extensively activated when viewing photos
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they took themselves
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Schrauf and Rubin’s \”two group of immigrants\” study found that the reminiscence bump coincided with periods of rapid change, occurring at a normal age for people emigrating early in life but shifting to 15 years later for those who emigrated later. The results support the:
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cognitive hypothesis
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Flashbulb memory is best represented by which of the following statements?
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it is memory for circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time.
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Your friend has been sick for several days, so you go over to her home to make some chicken soup. Searching for a spoon, you first reach in a top drawer beside the dishwasher. Then, you turn to the big cupboard beside the stove to search for a pan. In your search, you have relied on a kitchen
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schema
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In the \”War of the Ghosts\” experiment participants’ reproductions contained inaccuracies based on
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cultural expectations
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The misinformation effect occurs when a person’s memory for an event is modified by misleading information presented
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after the event
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The mental representations of knowledge are:
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concepts
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The definitional approach to categorization
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doesn’t work well for most natural objects like birds, trees, and plants
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Collins and Quillian explained the results of priming experiments by introducing the concept of _______ into their network model
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spreading activation
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If I tell you to think of a fish and you think of its characteristics, such as gills, fins, no air, etc.,you are thinking of its ______ attributes.
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defining
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Mental imagery involves
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experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input
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Behaviorists branded the study of imagery as being unproductive because
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visual images are invisible to everyone except the person experiencing them
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\”Early\” researchers of imagery (beginning with Aristotle until just prior to the dominance of behaviorism) proposed all of the following EXCEPT
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imagery requires a special mechanism
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Mental-scanning experiments found
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a positive linear relationship between scanning time and distance on the image
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Imagery neurons respond to
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visual images as well as objects in a specific category
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Language consists of smaller components, like words that can be combined to form larger ones, like phrases, to create sentences, which themselves can be components of a larger story. This property is known as
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hierarchical structure
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B F. Skinner, the modern champion of behaviorism, proposed that language is learned through
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reinforcement
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Ron is an avid reader. He has a large vocabulary because every time he comes across a word he doesn’t know, he looks it up in the dictionary. Ron encounters \”wanderlust\” in a novel, reaches for the dictionary, and finds out this word means \”desire to travel,\” The process of looking up unfamiliar words increases Ron’s
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lexicon
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Which of the following is the best example of a garden path sentence?
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Before the police stopped the Toyota disappeared into the night
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Boxing champion George Foreman recently described his family vacations with the statement, \”At our ranch in Marshall, Texas, there are lots of ponds and I take the kids out and we fish. And then of course, we grill them.\” That a reader understands \”them\” appropriately (George grills fish and not kids) is a result of a(n)____ inference
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anaphoric

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